The Creeds, The Prophets and the Latter Times

By Samuel M. Frost, Th.M.

Let us, for the record, state the three main Creeds of Christianity.  That is, to be a Christian, by historical definition, one adheres to these statements.  This is the Christian Faith:

The Apostles’ Creed (from 215 AD)

I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth,

And in Jesus Christ, his only begotten Son, our Lord, who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead and buried; He descended into hell. The third day he rose again from the dead; He ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of God the Father Almighty. From there he shall come to judge the quick and the dead.

I believe in the Holy Spirit, I believe in the holy catholic church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the flesh, and the life everlasting. Amen.

And now, the Nicene Creed (325 AD)

We believe in one God,
the Father almighty,
maker of heaven and earth,
of all things visible and invisible;
And in one Lord, Jesus Christ,
the only begotten Son of God,
begotten from the Father before all ages,
light from light,
true God from true God,
begotten not made,
of one substance with the Father,
through Whom all things came into existence,
Who because of us men and because of our salvation came down from the heavens,
and was incarnate from the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary
and became man,
and was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate,
and suffered and was buried,
and rose again on the third day according to the Scriptures
and ascended to heaven, and sits on the right hand of the Father,
and will come again with glory to judge living and dead,
of Whose kingdom there will be no end;
And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and life-giver,
Who proceeds from the Father,
Who with the Father and the Son is together worshipped and together glorified,
Who spoke through the prophets;
in one holy Catholic and apostolic Church.
We confess one baptism to the remission of sins;
we look forward to the resurrection of the dead and the life of the world to come (tou mellontos – Greek). Amen

Finally, The Creed of Chalcedon (451 AD)

We, then, following the holy Fathers, all with one consent, teach men to confess one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, the same perfect in Godhead and also perfect in manhood; truly God and truly man, of a reasonable soul and body; consubstantial with us according to the manhood; in all things like unto us, without sin; begotten before all ages of the Father according to the Godhead, and in these latter days (ep eschaton de ton hemeron – Greek), for us and for our salvation, born of the virgin Mary, the mother of God, according to the manhood; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only-begotten, to be acknowledged in two natures, inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably; the distinction of natures being by no means taken away by the union, but rather the property of each nature being preserved, and concurring in one Person and one Subsistence, not parted or divided into two persons, but one and the same Son, and only begotten, God the Word, the Lord Jesus Christ, as the prophets from the beginning have declared concerning him, and the Lord Jesus Christ himself taught us, and the Creed of the holy Fathers has handed down to us.

Now, with this being said, and in being in full agreement with it, there are some peculiar things that need to be pointed out.  First, the resurrection of the dead was envisioned as the resurrection of the flesh itself, latter amended to “resurrection of the body.”  The reason for this change was not in a denial of what was to be changed or transformed (the flesh), but “the body” sounded more “biblical” – the words changed, not the meaning the fathers had in mind.  This faith declaration is rooted in our Jewish foundations of the Faith in Israel’s Messiah, Yeshua (Jesus).  There is much in these words that convey the roots of Ancient Judaism that cannot be discussed here.

Secondly, in the Nicene Creed we see that “mello” is used, which is often thought to mean “about to” (and in many texts in the Bible, it does mean that, context alone decides).  Here, however, it expresses no such meaning.  It is simply translated with the understanding of what is most certainly going to come: The Age.  By this, the fathers were unanimous in their faith that God would indeed so transform our current apprehension and substance of “all that there is” into a New Heavens and a New Earth (which is shared, again, and is a continuation of our Jewish heritage).  The Church Council was not envisioning an “any time” coming of the Lord, but they were under the impression of an “it will certainly come, when it does”.

Third, we may note the phrase, “in these latter times” in the wording of Chalcedon.  Quite simply, this very phrase is picked out of the Greek Scriptures.  It was not taken by these fathers to mean “we are at the very last few remaining years of history.”  That definition seems to have become wildly popular in Dispensationalism, a view that takes this phrase as meaning the last few remaining years of planet earth.  There is no shortage of the abuse this phrase has taken by every nut job that claims to know that we are living in the last few months or years of planet earth.

It is found, for example, in the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, which was known to them, in Isaiah 2.1-ff, “acharith hayamim – in the latter times afterwards” where Isaiah pictures the Nations coming into the Mountain of the Lord learning the “ways of the LORD.”  In short, by the time this Creed was penned, Christianity saw itself as the Light of the World in Israel’s Messiah, Jesus.  The nations were being converted.

The “latter times” is used in parallel with the “former times”.  In Deuteronomy 4.30 it says, “When you are in tribulation, and all these things come upon you in the latter days, you will return to the LORD your God and obey his voice.”  But, in verse 4.32 we read, “For ask now of the former days that are past, which were before you, since the day that God created man on the earth, and ask from one end of heaven to the other, whether such a great thing as this has ever happened or was ever heard of.”  In other words, the “former days” is all the way, at least, from the time of Adam to Moses!  Why, then, does one insist that the “Latter Days” means only a few short years?  Did Isaiah actually have in mind a few short years in which the Nations would learn the Law of the LORD, and then the world would end?  Hardly.  Such a conclusion is reduced to absurdity.  The writer of Hebrews is in agreement: “In the past, God has spoken in many ways, but in these latter times, he has spoken by his son” (1.1).  Has the Son stopped speaking?  “Today if you hear his voice, hearken unto Him,” the author would go on to say.

Isaiah, indeed, stated, “Remember not the former ages…” (46.9).  Perhaps most notably is in Daniel 2 where King Nebuchadnezzar sees four empires, including his own, in a dream.  Daniel tells the King, “there is a God in heaven who reveals mysteries, and he has made known to King Nebuchadnezzar what will be in the latter times.”  In that dream, Daniel speaks of a Rock that “becomes a great mountain” and “fills the whole earth.”  Further, “…the God of heaven will set up a kingdom that shall never be destroyed, nor shall the kingdom be left to another people. It shall break in pieces all these kingdoms and bring them to an end, and it shall stand forever.”  In other words, this kingdom, which starts out as a small rock, becomes a great mountain, and eventually a great kingdom that not only destroys all other powers and authorities, but is the only one left standing.  It will destroy all other powers and authorities.

This language in Daniel, and in Isaiah, is kingdom language.  And, it not just that the four other empires were earthly powers, and the Messianic Rock is spiritual.  The Messianic Kingdom is indeed of spiritual origins, it is a rock “from heaven.”  But, it’s presence is manifested in terms of the visible destruction of earthly powers.  This coming kingdom, “in the latter times” will eventually topple over all earthly powers, and will be the only one left standing.  In the words of the Nicene Creed, “…of Whose kingdom there shall be no end.”

If we have this in mind, we can hear the backdrop of Daniel 2 in the Apostle Paul, when he wrote, “Then comes the end, when he delivers the kingdom to God the Father after destroying every rule and every authority and power” (1st Corinthians 15.24).  Indeed, the very appellations of “rule”, “authority” and “power” are descriptions of the empires used by Daniel.  Thus, for Messiah, the Rock, to “destroy” all “rule” and “authority” is precisely what it meant: his kingdom cannot be “destroyed” by invading armies, or political despots, or any earthly authority.  However, and this is the advantage of his kingdom, since it is not earthly in origin, he will destroy all other kingdoms.  This is the language of warfare.  This is the language we find in Revelation, and in ample volumes in the time of Jesus from other sources.

Thus, we find that the NT writers, and the early Church Fathers were living, or saw themselves as living in the “latter times” – the times when the Nations would come in by the droves to the Mountain of the Lord (as in Daniel, the rock becomes a mountain).  The Spirit would be poured out in abundance, speaking of the abundant life.  Christ would be installed as King of Kings (with the latter part of this title being earthly Kings – as the title was used in the OT for Nebuchadnezzar, Cyrus and other Kings).  He was the Ruler who sits at God’s right hand.  The Root of David’s Monarchy that would usher in an unprecedented era of teaching the Law among the Nations.  What is so amazing about these prophecies concerning the “latter times” is that they were written when the kingdom of Israel and Judah were at their weakest points.  Daniel was in exile when he spoke of the Israelite King that would decimate the kingdoms!  Isaiah was in a nation facing execution from the LORD at the hand of the Assyrians and Babylonians.  And, yet, several hundreds of years before the arrival of Christ, they spoke of a Davidic King who would become a Universal King, known worldwide.  And here comes Jesus, born in a flop inn, out in a barn somewhere in Bethlehem.  He calls to himself a few disciples, fishermen and ordinary Joes and Joesettes.  And this in a nation held under the Power of Rome: tiny, little Israel. And they are crushed in 70 AD!  Doesn’t sound like a good start for crucified King in Israel!

Why is it that, today, 2000 years later, we are speaking His Name, and the city of Jerusalem, and Israel?  Why is it that the nations rage? (Psalm 2).  Why is it that Christians are being told in America that their “religious beliefs” should have nothing to do with anything “political”?  Why is it that wherever Jesus is proclaimed, and large groups follow, they come into immediate conflict with Rulers, Powers, and Authorities?  We are living, and have been living, in the Latter Times.  Now, the LORD “changes seasons and times (Daniel 2.21)” at his will, and he has “set times and seasons” (which he can change as well – he can prolong them, or shorten, or do whatsoever he likes with them).  Selah.

Of whose kingdom there will be no end…(Nicene Creed)







Author: Samuel M. Frost, Th.D.

Samuel M. Frost has gained the recognition of his family, peers, colleagues, church members, and local community as a teacher and leader.  Samuel was raised in the Foursquare Gospel tradition and continued in the rising Charismatic Movement of the early 1980’s.  While serving in local congregations he was admitted to Liberty Christian College in Pensacola, Florida where he lived on campus for four years earning his Bachelor’s of Theology degree.  It was there under the tutelage of Dr. Dow Robinson (Summer Institutes of Linguistics), and Dr. Frank Longino (Dallas Theological Seminary) that he was motivated to pursue a career in Theology.  Dr. Robinson wrote two books on Linguistics, Workbook on Phonological Analysis (SIL, 1970) and Manuel for Bilingual Dictionaries: Textbook (SIL, 1969).  It was under these teachers’ guidance that Frost entered into his Master’s studies, being granted a scholarship for Greek I and II at Pentecostal Theological Seminary, accredited, in Cleveland, Tennessee (adjunct of Lee University).  Frost completed his study under Dr. French Arrington (The Ministry of Reconciliation, Baker Books, 1980), who used the text of J. Gresham Machen, New Testament Greek for Beginners. Frost studied Hebrew for two years under Dr. Mark Futato (author, Beginning Biblical Hebrew, Eisenbrauns, 2003) and Dr. Bruce K. Waltke (author, An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax, Eisenbrauns, 1990) at Reformed Theological Seminary, Orlando, Florida. With combined credits from PTS and RTS, Samuel completed his Master of Arts in Christian Studies and Master of Arts in Religion from Whitefield Theological Seminary in Lakeland, Florida under the direct tutelage of Dr. Kenneth G. Talbot, co-author of the well reviewed work, Hyper-Calvinism and Arminianism (Whitefield Media, 2005) with Dr. Gary Crampton (and Foreword by the late, Dr. D. James Kennedy).  Dr. Talbot also oversaw Samuel’s Dissertation, From the First Adam to the Second and Last Adam (2012) earning him the Magister Theologiae (Th.M.) degree.  He also helped put together A Student’s Hebrew Primer for WTS, designed and graded exams for their Hebrew Languages course. Samuel’s studies lead him into an issue in the field of Eschatology where his scholarship and unique approach in Hermeneutics garnered him recognition.  Because of the controversial nature of some of his conclusions, scholars were sharp in their disagreement with him.  Frost’s initial work, Misplaced Hope: The Origins of First and Second Century Eschatology (2002, Second Edition, 2006 Bi-Millennial Publishing), sold over four thousand units.  While arguing for the Reformation understanding of sola Scriptura as defined by the Westminster Confession of Faith, Frost’s book launched a heavily footnoted argument for a total reassessment of the doctrine known as the Second Coming of Christ.  The conclusion was that the events of the war of the Jewish nation against their Roman overlords in 66-70 C.E. formed the New Testament authors’ eschatological outlook, and went no further than their own first century generation; a view otherwise known as “full” or "hyper" Preterism.  Internationally recognized Evangelical author and speaker, Steve Wohlberg remarked, ‘On the “preterist” side today…we have such influential leaders as Gary DeMar, Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr., David Chilton, R.C. Sproul, Max King, James Stuart Russell, Samuel M. Frost, and John Noe.  To these scholars…the beast is not on the horizon, he’s dead” (Italics, his)” (End Time Delusions, Destiny Image Publishers, 2004, page 133).  It should be noted that only Noe, King and Frost supported the “full” Preterist position. Thomas Ice and co-author of the best selling Left Behind series, Tim LaHaye, quote Frost’s work, Misplaced Hope, as well in their book, The End Times Controversy: The Second Coming under Attack (Harvest House Publishers, 2003, page 40).  Dr. Jay E. Adams, who single handedly launched “a revolution” in Christian Counseling with his work, Competent to Counsel: An Introduction to Nouthetic Counseling, (1970, Zondervan), also wrote an analysis of Frost’s work in Preterism: Orthodox or Unorthodox? (Ministry Monographs for Modern Times, INS Publishing, 2004).  Adams wrote of Misplaced Hope as a "useful, scholarly work" (p.6 - though he disagreed with the overall thesis).  Dr. Charles E. Hill, Professor of New Testament and Early Christianity at Reformed Theological Seminary, Orlando, wrote of Misplaced Hope that Frost, “attacks the problem of the early church in a much more thoroughgoing way than I have seen” (When Shall These Things Be? A Reformed Response to Hyper Preterism, Ed. Keith Mathison, Presbyterian & Reformed Publishing, 2003, ‘Eschatology in the Wake of Jerusalem’s Fall’ p. 110-ff.).  There were several other works as well that took the scholarship of Frost seriously, like Ergun Caner in The Return of Christ: A Premillennial Perspective, Eds., Steve W. Lemke and David L. Allen (B&H Publishing, 2011). Because of the controversial nature of Frost’s conclusions on these matters, it was difficult to find a denomination within the Church-at-Large to work in terms of pastoral ministry.  That situation changed when Samuel was called by a Bible study group in Saint Petersburg, Florida to found a congregation.  Christ Covenant Church was established in 2002 operating under the principles outlined by Presbyterian historian James Bannerman’s work, The Church of Christ: A Treatise on the Nature, Powers, Ordinances, Discipline, and Government of the Christian Church (Banner of Truth Trust, 1974, original, 1869).  By-Laws and a Constitution were drawn up in the strictest manner for what was considered an “Independent” establishment of a Presbyterian Church, granted that a “call” was received and recognized by Presiding Elders duly ordained from existing and recognized denominations.  Two Elders, one ordained in the Reformed Presbyterian Church (Mike Delores), and another ordained in the Presbyterian Church of America (Dr. Kelly N. Birks, now deceased) tested and reviewed the call, ordaining Samuel on October 20th, 2002, the Twenty Second Sunday after Trinity.  Proper forms were submitted to Tallahassee, Florida with the stamp of a Notary Public Witness.  Christ Covenant Church (CCC) functioned as a local church for five years with a congregation as large as 30 members.  Frost was gaining recognition after Misplaced Hope had been published in January of that year, and conferences were hosted that included debates with another prominent "full" Preterist educator, Don K. Preston.  CCC hosted best-selling authors, Thomas Ice, and Mark Hitchcock from Dallas Theological Seminary; and Dr. James B. Jordan (Westminster Theological Seminary), well-known author/pastor in Reformed theological circles.  Frost was invited for the next several years to speak at over 25 conferences nation-wide, was featured in articles and an appearance on local news in Tampa for one of CCC’s conferences.  The Evangelical Theological Society also invited Samuel to speak at the Philadelphia conference (Frost is currently a Member of ETS as well as Society of Biblical Literature). During this time Samuel had submitted one more book, Exegetical Essays on the Resurrection of the Dead (TruthVoice, 2008; repr. JaDon Publishing, 2010); and co-wrote, House Divided: A Reformed Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Vision International, 2010).  Frost also wrote several Forewords for up and coming authors who were influenced by his teaching materials, as well as cited many times in books, lectures and academic papers.  However, because of certain aspects of Hermeneutics and Frost’s undaunted commitment to scholarship (with always a strong emphasis on the personal nature of devotional living to Christ), several challenges to the "hyper" Preterist view he espoused finally gave way, largely due to the unwavering commitment to Samuel by the Dean of Whitefield Theological Seminary, Dr. Kenneth G. Talbot, who continually challenged him.  In what shocked the "hyper" Preterist world, Samuel announced after the Summer of 2010 that he was in serious error, and departed the movement as a whole, along with Jason Bradfield, now Assistant Pastor of Christ Presbyterian Church, Lakeland, Florida .  Christ Covenant Church had dissolved after 2007 while Samuel continued as a public speaker and writer, largely due to reasons that would unravel Frost’s commitment to "hyper" Preterism as a whole. The documentation of Frost’s departure was published by American Vision’s Founder, Gary DeMar, with a Foreword by Dr. Kenneth L. Gentry.  Why I Left Full Preterism (AV Publishing, 2012) quickly ran through its first run.  The book was later republished under the arm of Dr. Kenneth L. Gentry and is sold today (GoodBirth Ministries Publishing, 2019; though still available in Kindle form from American Vision).  Dr. Gentry also gave mention to Frost in his book, Have We Missed the Second Coming: A Critique of Hyper Preterism (Victorious Hope Publishing, 2016), noting him as "one of the most prominent" teachers within Full Preterism (135).  Dr. Keith Mathison, Professor of Systematic Theology at Reformation Bible College in Sanford, Florida, endorsed the book as well.  Samuel has gone on to write, Daniel: Unplugged (McGahan Publishing House, 2021); The Parousia of the Son of Man (Lulu Publishing, 2019); God: As Bill Wilson Understood Him, A Theological Analysis of Alcoholics Anonymous (Lulu Publishing, 2017).  He is also active as a certified Chaplain with the Henry County Sheriff’s Department, Indiana, and enrolled with ICAADA (Indiana Counselor’s Association on Alcohol and Drug Abuse), and worked directly under Dr. Dennis Greene, Founder of Christian Counseling and Addictions Services, Inc., for a year.  Frost’s passion is in the education of the local church on various issues and occasionally works with Pastor Alan McCraine with the First Presbyterian Church in Lewisville, Indiana, and Bethel Presbyterian Church, Knightstown, Indiana, where he periodically is called upon to give the sermon. Samuel, with his wife, Kimberly, helped to establish Heaven’s Bread Basket food pantry that donates food items to local families in need once a month – a ministry of the Session of First Presbyterian Church, Lewisville, Indiana. Samuel also works part time at Ace Hardware in New Castle, Indiana for several years.  He has a solid, family reputation in the community, and has performed local marriages and funerals.  He also sits on the Board of the Historical Preservation Committee in New Castle. Recently, he has completed his two year quest for a Th.D from Christian Life School of Theology Global, Georgia.

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