What about the Time-Texts? (Part 1)

Samuel M. Frost, Th. M.

Anyone and everyone familiar with the subject of Eschatology in the Bible is familiar with the so called, “time texts” of the Scriptures, particularly in the New Testament (NT).  This series of articles will deal with them in their various groupings under certain terms and phrases such as, “about to”; “at hand”; “near”; “this generation”; “ready”; “now”, and various others.

The first thing that strikes the reader of Mark is that Jesus comes on the scene and announces, “the kingdom of God is at hand.  The time has come” (1.15).  Jesus announced this in 31 CE.  Now, at first glance, this looks like he was saying that the Kingdom, God’s Kingdom in the heavenlies over all the world is ready to manifest itself for all to see.  And, of course, the whole world would immediately be radically changed if, in fact, this happened.  If the veil that separates our vision between what is seen and the invisible realm of God’s Kingdom were removed so that all, everywhere, would have no more doubts as to whether or not God exists, then I would not have to write this piece!

Of course, this did not happen.  In the Scriptures, there are the kingdoms of differing people groups, or nations, and then there is the Kingdom of God that rules over all the kingdoms.  “The LORD has established his throne in the heavens, and his kingdom rules over all.  Bless the LORD, O you his angels, you mighty ones who do his word, obeying the voice of his word!  Bless the LORD, all his hosts, his ministers, who do his will!” (Psalm 103.19).  In the Prophets we see that it required “visions” to see this Kingdom and its host.  For Daniel in particular God is seen as one that sits on the throne, having books opened before him, sending out his angels (messengers) to do all that he does in the earth.  Daniel is most explicit: “He changes times and seasons; he removes kings and sets up kings; he gives wisdom to the wise and knowledge to those who have understanding” (Daniel 2.21).  Likewise, Isaiah pictures God as one who is “ruling from the Bench” as it were: “The LORD takes his place in court; he rises to judge the people.  The LORD enters into judgment against the elders and leaders of his people” (3.12,13).  King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon is recorded by Daniel as having acknowledged this truth: “At the end of the days I, Nebuchadnezzar, lifted my eyes to heaven, and my reason returned to me, and I blessed the Most High, and praised and honored him who lives forever, for his dominion is an everlasting dominion, and his kingdom endures from generation to generation; all the inhabitants of the earth are accounted as nothing, and he does according to his will among the host of heaven and among the inhabitants of the earth; and none can stay his hand or say to him, “What have you done?” (Daniel 4.34,35).

I could literally cut and paste hundreds of verses in the Scriptures to this point.  God’s Kingdom is His Rule over all of his creation and nothing escapes his attention.  Thus, with this first point, when we read the phrase, “the kingdom of God is at hand” does it mean that His Eternal Kingdom is getting ready to appear to everyone and be seen by all?  It cannot mean that he is getting ready to rule over his creation, for he already does.  It cannot mean that he is getting ready to “build” his Kingdom, for it already is.  It cannot mean that his Kingdom is going to take its place among the kingdom-nations of the world so that he can set up trade with them and perhaps join in on some alliances.

God’s Kingdom is over all kingdoms on the earth, and we have established this point.  However, with Israel we find that, indeed, there is a kingdom on earth.  It has a beginning point.  “Now therefore, if you will indeed obey my voice and keep my covenant, you shall be my treasured possession among all peoples, for all the earth is mine; and you shall be to me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation. These are the words that you shall speak to the people of Israel” (Exodus 19.5,6).  Here, God has removed the Israelites from Egypt under Moses and enters into a covenant with them (an ancient form of an alliance, a contract of sorts).  Here we see the existence of others “among the peoples” (nations), and the acknowledgment of my first point: “for all the earth is mine.”  Everything God made and everything in it is his since, well, he made it.  I will allow Saint Paul to drive this point home: “The God who made the world and everything in it, being Lord of heaven and earth, does not live in temples made by man, nor is he served by human hands, as though he needed anything, since he himself gives to all mankind life and breath and everything.  And he made from one man every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having determined allotted periods and the boundaries of their dwelling place, that they should seek God, in the hope that they might feel their way toward him and find him. Yet he is actually not far from each one of us,  for “‘In him we live and move and have our being’; as even some of your own poets have said, “‘ For we are indeed his offspring'” (Acts 17.24-ff).  This is Judaism 101.

Now, God forms this new nation under Moses and it is, like the others among them, called a kingdom.  There is the Kingdom of God, then there are the kingdoms of humankind and in particular there is the kingdom or nation of Israel.  This should not be a hard point to grasp.  What is also to be noted in Paul’s word (which was spoken to Greeks in Athens, Greece) is that he said, “though, indeed, he is not far from each one of us.”  The antonym (opposite) of “far” is “near.”  In Thayer’s Greek Lexicon, this phrase “not far” denotes that God, “is near everyone of us by his power and influence.”  The Louw-Nida Lexicon lists this term as an antonym of “near” or “at hand.”

Now, then, when Jesus said, “the kingdom of God is at hand” or “near”, we note that the verb in question is in the Perfect Tense in the Greek text.  The Perfect Tense is a form that emphasizes a past action with present results.  “America has been founded (and remains founded) on the Constitution,” where “has been” is in the Perfect Tense.  Thus, many translations have, “the Kingdom of God has come near”.  Luke’s Gospel goes even further with this idea.  Sending out the Disciples, Jesus tells them to “Heal the sick in it and say to them, ‘The kingdom of God has come near to you'” (10.9).  Obviously.  If the sick are healed miraculously by touch and prayer, then God was near “by his power and influence.”  So near you could reach out and touch Him (as he was certainly touching them).

Luke continues with this.  “But if it is by the finger of God that I cast out the demons, then the kingdom of God has come to you” (11.20).  Here, the term “near” is simply dropped.  The Kingdom of God has come (Perfect Tense) to them by the direct power and demonstration of Jesus over demons.  In perhaps a more striking example of my point, Luke stresses the fact that the Kingdom of God is not something far off, something remote or so far away that it cannot be sought.  Rather, “the Kingdom of God is among you” (17.21).  These two passages in Luke demonstrate, I believe, the idea of how we should understand the Greek word, enngus – close, at hand, near.  It does not denote near in terms of time, but near in terms of spatiality (as offered by Thayer).

There is a bit of translation controversy over Luke 17.21, “the kingdom of God is among you” or “within you.”  However, this is irrelevant to the discussion because in any way one wishes to translate this verse, the kingdom of God was still demonstrably near.  Craig A. Evans notes that this phrase is found in the Gospel of Thomas, a late first century tract.  It is conflated with Deuteronomy 30.11-14.  There, “For this commandment that I command you today is not too hard for you, neither is it far off.   It is not in heaven, that you should say, ‘Who will ascend to heaven for us and bring it to us, that we may hear it and do it?’  Neither is it beyond the sea, that you should say, ‘Who will go over the sea for us and bring it to us, that we may hear it and do it?’  But the word is very near you. It is in your mouth and in your heart, so that you can do it” (Evans’ work from NIBC, Luke).

We can note in this text the antonym “far off” as opposed to our target word, “near”.  The phrase, “the word is very near you” does not denote closeness in terms of time, but in terms of space.  One could insert here “the kingdom of God” and “time” in place of “the word” and have the exact same Greek phrase we find in the NT.

Indeed, Paul quotes from this same passage of Deuteronomy 30 in Romans 10.6-10, and concludes by quoting Joel 2.32, “Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved” (10.13).  This passage in Joel is quoted by Peter in Acts 2.21, and concludes, “This promise is for you, for your children and all who are far away.”  The promise was near them.  The word of their preaching was in their hearing.  The Spirit of the Kingdom of God was there – ready to save.

What is of further interest to us in this regard is that Luke reports two instances of the expectations of many of the Jews in the first century.  “As they were listening to this, he went on to tell a parable, because he was near Jerusalem, and because they supposed that the kingdom of God was to appear immediately” (Luke 19.11).  “Near” here is enngus and here certainly means near in terms of space.  They supposed that upon Messiah’s entrance into Jerusalem, the Kingdom of God would appear in its full, manifested glory and restore all things.  It didn’t.

The second instance is taken from the passage we already quoted, Luke 17.21.  There, the Pharisees asked “when” the Kingdom of God would come.  Jesus, not dissuading the fact that the Kingdom is indeed observable in and of itself, states that its coming is right now.  “The kingdom of God is within/among you.”  It is at hand, right in front of their faces, near their hearts, and hearing its word.  This is what Luke means by “near.”  It is not a “time-text.”

Jesus did not say the Kingdom of God is not observable, but that its appearing, which they thought to be something that would happen at that time, would be cataclysmic.  He is not even denying that the Kingdom will come in terms of a final end of history and time.  What he is saying is that the Kingdom of God has come – it is near them, working invisibly (as it has always done) within/among the hearts of those near and far.  In this passage (Luke 17) Jesus goes on to say that he will be taken away from them, as Noah left and entered the ark, and as Lot left Sodom.  Jesus entered heaven and left the land.  There, in his “days of the son of man” he rules from the heavens at the right hand of God with occasional “flashes of lightning” (17.24) that appear on the earth.  The Kingdom is near, and Jesus has received it upon the clouds of heaven as the son of man (Daniel 7.13,14).  But, the Kingdom will continue to remain invisible, as well as his reign on David’s throne and over Israel (Luke 1.32,33 – where we must insist that David was a Prophet and saw that the throne to be inherited by one of his own bloodline was the heavenly throne).  Indeed, Luke’s narrative begins with the announcement of Simeon, who declares upon seeing the infant son of man, “Lord, now you are letting your servant depart in peace, according to your word; for my eyes have seen your salvation, that you have prepared in the presence of all peoples, a light for revelation to the Nations, and for glory to your people Israel” (Luke 2.29-ff).

This is the announcement of the Kingdom of God.  The day has come.  Salvation is near in their hearing.  The Light has come to the Nations and the Spirit has been poured out on all flesh.  This is about as “near” as one can get to the Kingdom of God and yet still be in this flesh and blood on earth!  This is the “time” for those near and those far away (the nations) to come and drink from the wells of salvation and life in Jesus Christ.  It is this message that we, too, proclaim: “The time has come (and is here), the Kingdom of God is at hand (in your hearing, on your lips and in your heart).  Repent, while the Day is still called, “Today!”


Author: Samuel M. Frost, Th.D.

Samuel M. Frost has gained the recognition of his family, peers, colleagues, church members, and local community as a teacher and leader.  Samuel was raised in the Foursquare Gospel tradition and continued in the rising Charismatic Movement of the early 1980’s.  While serving in local congregations he was admitted to Liberty Christian College in Pensacola, Florida where he lived on campus for four years earning his Bachelor’s of Theology degree.  It was there under the tutelage of Dr. Dow Robinson (Summer Institutes of Linguistics), and Dr. Frank Longino (Dallas Theological Seminary) that he was motivated to pursue a career in Theology.  Dr. Robinson wrote two books on Linguistics, Workbook on Phonological Analysis (SIL, 1970) and Manuel for Bilingual Dictionaries: Textbook (SIL, 1969).  It was under these teachers’ guidance that Frost entered into his Master’s studies, being granted a scholarship for Greek I and II at Pentecostal Theological Seminary, accredited, in Cleveland, Tennessee (adjunct of Lee University).  Frost completed his study under Dr. French Arrington (The Ministry of Reconciliation, Baker Books, 1980), who used the text of J. Gresham Machen, New Testament Greek for Beginners. Frost studied Hebrew for two years under Dr. Mark Futato (author, Beginning Biblical Hebrew, Eisenbrauns, 2003) and Dr. Bruce K. Waltke (author, An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax, Eisenbrauns, 1990) at Reformed Theological Seminary, Orlando, Florida. With combined credits from PTS and RTS, Samuel completed his Master of Arts in Christian Studies and Master of Arts in Religion from Whitefield Theological Seminary in Lakeland, Florida under the direct tutelage of Dr. Kenneth G. Talbot, co-author of the well reviewed work, Hyper-Calvinism and Arminianism (Whitefield Media, 2005) with Dr. Gary Crampton (and Foreword by the late, Dr. D. James Kennedy).  Dr. Talbot also oversaw Samuel’s Dissertation, From the First Adam to the Second and Last Adam (2012) earning him the Magister Theologiae (Th.M.) degree.  He also helped put together A Student’s Hebrew Primer for WTS, designed and graded exams for their Hebrew Languages course. Samuel’s studies lead him into an issue in the field of Eschatology where his scholarship and unique approach in Hermeneutics garnered him recognition.  Because of the controversial nature of some of his conclusions, scholars were sharp in their disagreement with him.  Frost’s initial work, Misplaced Hope: The Origins of First and Second Century Eschatology (2002, Second Edition, 2006 Bi-Millennial Publishing), sold over four thousand units.  While arguing for the Reformation understanding of sola Scriptura as defined by the Westminster Confession of Faith, Frost’s book launched a heavily footnoted argument for a total reassessment of the doctrine known as the Second Coming of Christ.  The conclusion was that the events of the war of the Jewish nation against their Roman overlords in 66-70 C.E. formed the New Testament authors’ eschatological outlook, and went no further than their own first century generation; a view otherwise known as “full” or "hyper" Preterism.  Internationally recognized Evangelical author and speaker, Steve Wohlberg remarked, ‘On the “preterist” side today…we have such influential leaders as Gary DeMar, Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr., David Chilton, R.C. Sproul, Max King, James Stuart Russell, Samuel M. Frost, and John Noe.  To these scholars…the beast is not on the horizon, he’s dead” (Italics, his)” (End Time Delusions, Destiny Image Publishers, 2004, page 133).  It should be noted that only Noe, King and Frost supported the “full” Preterist position. Thomas Ice and co-author of the best selling Left Behind series, Tim LaHaye, quote Frost’s work, Misplaced Hope, as well in their book, The End Times Controversy: The Second Coming under Attack (Harvest House Publishers, 2003, page 40).  Dr. Jay E. Adams, who single handedly launched “a revolution” in Christian Counseling with his work, Competent to Counsel: An Introduction to Nouthetic Counseling, (1970, Zondervan), also wrote an analysis of Frost’s work in Preterism: Orthodox or Unorthodox? (Ministry Monographs for Modern Times, INS Publishing, 2004).  Adams wrote of Misplaced Hope as a "useful, scholarly work" (p.6 - though he disagreed with the overall thesis).  Dr. Charles E. Hill, Professor of New Testament and Early Christianity at Reformed Theological Seminary, Orlando, wrote of Misplaced Hope that Frost, “attacks the problem of the early church in a much more thoroughgoing way than I have seen” (When Shall These Things Be? A Reformed Response to Hyper Preterism, Ed. Keith Mathison, Presbyterian & Reformed Publishing, 2003, ‘Eschatology in the Wake of Jerusalem’s Fall’ p. 110-ff.).  There were several other works as well that took the scholarship of Frost seriously, like Ergun Caner in The Return of Christ: A Premillennial Perspective, Eds., Steve W. Lemke and David L. Allen (B&H Publishing, 2011). Because of the controversial nature of Frost’s conclusions on these matters, it was difficult to find a denomination within the Church-at-Large to work in terms of pastoral ministry.  That situation changed when Samuel was called by a Bible study group in Saint Petersburg, Florida to found a congregation.  Christ Covenant Church was established in 2002 operating under the principles outlined by Presbyterian historian James Bannerman’s work, The Church of Christ: A Treatise on the Nature, Powers, Ordinances, Discipline, and Government of the Christian Church (Banner of Truth Trust, 1974, original, 1869).  By-Laws and a Constitution were drawn up in the strictest manner for what was considered an “Independent” establishment of a Presbyterian Church, granted that a “call” was received and recognized by Presiding Elders duly ordained from existing and recognized denominations.  Two Elders, one ordained in the Reformed Presbyterian Church (Mike Delores), and another ordained in the Presbyterian Church of America (Dr. Kelly N. Birks, now deceased) tested and reviewed the call, ordaining Samuel on October 20th, 2002, the Twenty Second Sunday after Trinity.  Proper forms were submitted to Tallahassee, Florida with the stamp of a Notary Public Witness.  Christ Covenant Church (CCC) functioned as a local church for five years with a congregation as large as 30 members.  Frost was gaining recognition after Misplaced Hope had been published in January of that year, and conferences were hosted that included debates with another prominent "full" Preterist educator, Don K. Preston.  CCC hosted best-selling authors, Thomas Ice, and Mark Hitchcock from Dallas Theological Seminary; and Dr. James B. Jordan (Westminster Theological Seminary), well-known author/pastor in Reformed theological circles.  Frost was invited for the next several years to speak at over 25 conferences nation-wide, was featured in articles and an appearance on local news in Tampa for one of CCC’s conferences.  The Evangelical Theological Society also invited Samuel to speak at the Philadelphia conference (Frost is currently a Member of ETS as well as Society of Biblical Literature). During this time Samuel had submitted one more book, Exegetical Essays on the Resurrection of the Dead (TruthVoice, 2008; repr. JaDon Publishing, 2010); and co-wrote, House Divided: A Reformed Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Vision International, 2010).  Frost also wrote several Forewords for up and coming authors who were influenced by his teaching materials, as well as cited many times in books, lectures and academic papers.  However, because of certain aspects of Hermeneutics and Frost’s undaunted commitment to scholarship (with always a strong emphasis on the personal nature of devotional living to Christ), several challenges to the "hyper" Preterist view he espoused finally gave way, largely due to the unwavering commitment to Samuel by the Dean of Whitefield Theological Seminary, Dr. Kenneth G. Talbot, who continually challenged him.  In what shocked the "hyper" Preterist world, Samuel announced after the Summer of 2010 that he was in serious error, and departed the movement as a whole, along with Jason Bradfield, now Assistant Pastor of Christ Presbyterian Church, Lakeland, Florida .  Christ Covenant Church had dissolved after 2007 while Samuel continued as a public speaker and writer, largely due to reasons that would unravel Frost’s commitment to "hyper" Preterism as a whole. The documentation of Frost’s departure was published by American Vision’s Founder, Gary DeMar, with a Foreword by Dr. Kenneth L. Gentry.  Why I Left Full Preterism (AV Publishing, 2012) quickly ran through its first run.  The book was later republished under the arm of Dr. Kenneth L. Gentry and is sold today (GoodBirth Ministries Publishing, 2019; though still available in Kindle form from American Vision).  Dr. Gentry also gave mention to Frost in his book, Have We Missed the Second Coming: A Critique of Hyper Preterism (Victorious Hope Publishing, 2016), noting him as "one of the most prominent" teachers within Full Preterism (135).  Dr. Keith Mathison, Professor of Systematic Theology at Reformation Bible College in Sanford, Florida, endorsed the book as well.  Samuel has gone on to write, Daniel: Unplugged (McGahan Publishing House, 2021); The Parousia of the Son of Man (Lulu Publishing, 2019); God: As Bill Wilson Understood Him, A Theological Analysis of Alcoholics Anonymous (Lulu Publishing, 2017).  He is also active as a certified Chaplain with the Henry County Sheriff’s Department, Indiana, and enrolled with ICAADA (Indiana Counselor’s Association on Alcohol and Drug Abuse), and worked directly under Dr. Dennis Greene, Founder of Christian Counseling and Addictions Services, Inc., for a year.  Frost’s passion is in the education of the local church on various issues and occasionally works with Pastor Alan McCraine with the First Presbyterian Church in Lewisville, Indiana, and Bethel Presbyterian Church, Knightstown, Indiana, where he periodically is called upon to give the sermon. Samuel, with his wife, Kimberly, helped to establish Heaven’s Bread Basket food pantry that donates food items to local families in need once a month – a ministry of the Session of First Presbyterian Church, Lewisville, Indiana. Samuel also works part time at Ace Hardware in New Castle, Indiana for several years.  He has a solid, family reputation in the community, and has performed local marriages and funerals.  He also sits on the Board of the Historical Preservation Committee in New Castle. Recently, he has completed his two year quest for a Th.D from Christian Life School of Theology Global, Georgia.

5 thoughts on “What about the Time-Texts? (Part 1)”

  1. The sign of the Cross on our forehead, lips and heart just prior to the reading of the Gospel…“May the Lord be in my mind, on my lips and in my heart.”
    He is with us, may we believe it.


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