Who is Jesus? Part 1

Samuel M. Frost, Th.M.

For anyone following the recent explosive topic on Facebook concerning matters of what is called, Christology, you will have noticed the constant appeal by me to Chalcedon, 451 AD.  Since my opponents now openly and explicitly admit they deny this cherished Statement of the Christian Faith, one of them stating that the union between Man and God in the Son, “ceased”, it behooved me to begin an article or two on the subject.  It marks the end of that discussion for me with these deniers.

The Apostle Paul wrote what is perhaps his most clearest attempt to  honor two theologically perplexing problems.  Jesus is a man “born of a woman” (Romans 1.2) and is genealogically speaking, of the family of King David.  Paul consistently calls this Jesus a man.  However, there are also passages wherein Paul unmistakably relates Jesus to God Himself.  How can this be?

“…Christ Jesus, who being in nature of God, did not think being equal with God something to hold” (Philippians 2.6, 7).  In other words, Messiah Yeshuah, his earthly name, and the name by which, as we shall see, he is to be forever called, while on earth was equal to God.  This was not something he had to “grab”, or “take” (hold) for himself.  He is equal to God (where the main verb “being” is present).  “This was why the Jews were seeking all the more to kill him, because not only was he breaking the Sabbath, but he was even calling God his own Father, making himself equal [same word in Paul] with God” (John 5.18).  It is perhaps from John that Paul took his cue.

Before we go any further in this verse, and finally in this articles to Chalcedon, let us immediately note that we are talking about two, distinct beings: God, and Christ Jesus.  John introduces God, the Father.  Jesus is the son.  The Father is invisible, spirit, heavenly, eternal.  Jesus is a man, flesh, and his feet got dirty.  God does not have feet.  You get the picture.  The antagonizers of Jesus got the picture: he is claiming to be equal to God.  “Equal” as a term requires two things in order to compare/contrast the claim: they are equals.  Thus, Christ Jesus, as a man, had no problems in his mind thinking that he is equal with God.  How can a man think that he is equal to God?  That God is his direct father?  Hopefully, you can begin to see the issue: God, Father, Son, Jesus, thinking, man.

“…but did empty himself, the nature of a servant having taken, in the likeness of men having been made, and in fashion having been found as a man, he humbled himself, having become obedient unto death — death even of a cross” (Philippians 2.7,8).  But, this Jesus, the Messiah (the Christ), the one who has no issues thinking that he is equal to God Himself, he emptied himself.  The verb κενοω (kenoo) means to lay aside something that one has.  Jeremiah 14.2 says, “Judah is in mourning, Her settlements languish” where the Greek verb used for the Hebrew is kenoo.  Her gates themselves are laid aside.  She has gates.  They are just laid aside and not being used.  Some translations have, as the one above, “emptied himself” which again carries with it the notion of laid aside, not used, emptied out, tossed.  The point here is the Jesus, the Messiah, the son of Mary,  who did not think it any issue to be equal with God, laid aside that equality, did not use it to further his own mission.  He knew he was equal to God, but did not cash in on that equality.  It’s like this: “Do you think that I cannot appeal to my Father, and he will at once send me more than twelve legions of angels?  But how then should the Scriptures be fulfilled, that it must be so?….Then those who had seized Jesus led him to Caiaphas the high priest” (Matthew 26.55-ff).  He was sentenced to death.

Get it?  The next part of the clause, “having taken the nature of a servant” runs into ambiguity at first.  The verb, “taken” has a subject acting on another thing; in this case someone is taking something.  In order for someone to take something, someone must exist prior to the taking.  We know that Jesus of Nazareth was born.  There was a time when he was not.  However, there was not time when God was not; He is Eternal.  The man, Christ Jesus, was not born into the world, then at some point decided to “take” to himself equality with God.  That’s absurd.  So, who did the taking here?  Who took to himself “the nature of a servant, in the likeness of man was made”?  If someone “was made” something, and this same someone “took” something to himself before he was made, else nobody took anything, then by logic of the verb, the text, God took to Himself the nature of man, and in that nature made a man (who did not exist prior to) and was found, after fashioning this man, one who was a man equal to Himself.

Now, we know that the Bible uses the terms, “father and son” repeatedly for Jesus and the Father.  But, we know that Jesus, the man, was made, created – had no existence prior to.  We also know that the Son of God is Eternal, is God Himself, the Son.  Therefore, the Son, who is God, took to Himself human nature, and in that Nature fashioned a man, with a human soul and a human body.  This man, Christ Jesus, Messiah, is in union with the Son of God, Who Is God Himself.  This man, knowing his equality with the Son of God, knowing that he himself was made of his mother and Spirit, laid aside that which he is in union with, and lived his life solely in terms of what he was: a created man.  He did not draw upon his being in union with God, equal to God, to “bail him out” of what he had to face: death on a cross.  He did not draw his strength from temptation by relying on his equality with God, but rather resisted it as a man drawing on his faith in God.  He did not use his power, which was equal to God, since he is in union with God, to cause him not to sleep, to hunger, to weep.  God never sleeps.  God never hungers.  God has no stomach.  God is spirit-essence.  He did not use his equality with God, who is Omniscient, to express his teachings: for the son of man did not know the day or hour of “that day” when heaven and earth would pass away.  But, he said, “the Father knows” – who he is equal to.

So, what we have here, then, is Father, Son, son of man, Jesus Christ, human nature, man.  The man, Christ Jesus, who is equal to God, as a man did not think it any problem being equal to God.  The man laid aside that equality.  God the Son took to Himself human nature and out of that nature made a man, Yeshua Messiah – a man with a soul and a body just like yours and mine.  Back hair and all.  This human being, this Jesus, the son of man, did not think it a problem that he was equal to God because he knew that God the Father was his Father.  The Son of God, the Eternal certainly has no issue being equal with God for He is God, the Son, and knows the Father, eternally.  Therefore, since the Son of God, Eternal, took to Himself human nature and fashioned a human being, the son of man, the son of man, being a soul and body, knew that he was in union with God, directly.  When we get to the Chalcedonian expressions it will become at once clear how they, like Paul, were trying to express what Paul here is saying.  Hang on.  It is important, however, at this point that we have fulfilled two requirements which was the utmost concern to the ancient fathers of our Christian Faith: 1. That no logical contradiction occurs in our description.  2. That no contradiction in our description contradicts the Revelation, the Bible.  These were the two “tests”.  Write them down.  Hang it on your wall.  Memorize it.

Now, again, he humbled himself, having become obedient unto death — death even of a cross.”  As the man, Christ Jesus, emptied himself, or laid aside that drawing of strength of being equal to God and rather depending on his drawing of the strength of his human faith (like us), so also he humbled himself.  It is here that Paul, before he said all of this, stated “have this thinking in you that is in Christ Jesus, who being in the nature of God…”  Be like Jesus, the man, who humbled himself.  Who, as a man is equal to God, but laid aside such honor, and as a man obeyed God, humbled himself, put those who he went to the cross for before himself.  Be like that.  Now, this Jesus, the son of man, did die.  And this simply cannot possibly be said of God, who he is equal to.  This can however absolutely be said of the human being, Jesus of Bethlehem.  He died.  His soul was separated from his body, and James 2.26 gives us a most explicit definition of death, “the body without the spirit is dead.”  No brainer.

Therefore God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the name that is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father” (2.9-11).  It was to the “glory of the Father” that the man, Jesus, was made by God, and that God took to himself human nature in union with Himself and fashioned the son of man.  God did not “exalt himself” – God, the Son, Eternal, did not die, nor was he “highly exalted” after he made the man, Christ Jesus.  The Son of God, Eternal, is eternally exalted, eternally God.  The exaltation of is for “him” – the one that died and was raised from the dead, the son of man, body and soul – human nature.  Every knee will bow to King Jesus, the Son of David, King of Jerusalem.  Those on the earth (the living), those under the earth (the dead, the bodies of the dead that belong to those who have died – this is Paul talk for resurrection of the dead by the One who was raised from the dead, Jesus, the son of man, Son of God).

In conclusion, in a day or two, I will post comments on the Chalcedon Creed, 451 AD.  The words of that Creed are an exposition of these verses we have considered here (and several more).  After such, it will become quite plain that the men who penned this Creed were devout believers of the Scriptures, had wrestled through them with great pain (literally), and struck upon a formulation that, in spite of our dissensions and differences and words against one another, have united us all together in this One Confession of the Faith.



Author: Samuel M. Frost, Th.D.

Samuel M. Frost has gained the recognition of his family, peers, colleagues, church members, and local community as a teacher and leader.  Samuel was raised in the Foursquare Gospel tradition and continued in the rising Charismatic Movement of the early 1980’s.  While serving in local congregations he was admitted to Liberty Christian College in Pensacola, Florida where he lived on campus for four years earning his Bachelor’s of Theology degree.  It was there under the tutelage of Dr. Dow Robinson (Summer Institutes of Linguistics), and Dr. Frank Longino (Dallas Theological Seminary) that he was motivated to pursue a career in Theology.  Dr. Robinson wrote two books on Linguistics, Workbook on Phonological Analysis (SIL, 1970) and Manuel for Bilingual Dictionaries: Textbook (SIL, 1969).  It was under these teachers’ guidance that Frost entered into his Master’s studies, being granted a scholarship for Greek I and II at Pentecostal Theological Seminary, accredited, in Cleveland, Tennessee (adjunct of Lee University).  Frost completed his study under Dr. French Arrington (The Ministry of Reconciliation, Baker Books, 1980), who used the text of J. Gresham Machen, New Testament Greek for Beginners. Frost studied Hebrew for two years under Dr. Mark Futato (author, Beginning Biblical Hebrew, Eisenbrauns, 2003) and Dr. Bruce K. Waltke (author, An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax, Eisenbrauns, 1990) at Reformed Theological Seminary, Orlando, Florida. With combined credits from PTS and RTS, Samuel completed his Master of Arts in Christian Studies and Master of Arts in Religion from Whitefield Theological Seminary in Lakeland, Florida under the direct tutelage of Dr. Kenneth G. Talbot, co-author of the well reviewed work, Hyper-Calvinism and Arminianism (Whitefield Media, 2005) with Dr. Gary Crampton (and Foreword by the late, Dr. D. James Kennedy).  Dr. Talbot also oversaw Samuel’s Dissertation, From the First Adam to the Second and Last Adam (2012) earning him the Magister Theologiae (Th.M.) degree.  He also helped put together A Student’s Hebrew Primer for WTS, designed and graded exams for their Hebrew Languages course. Samuel’s studies lead him into an issue in the field of Eschatology where his scholarship and unique approach in Hermeneutics garnered him recognition.  Because of the controversial nature of some of his conclusions, scholars were sharp in their disagreement with him.  Frost’s initial work, Misplaced Hope: The Origins of First and Second Century Eschatology (2002, Second Edition, 2006 Bi-Millennial Publishing), sold over four thousand units.  While arguing for the Reformation understanding of sola Scriptura as defined by the Westminster Confession of Faith, Frost’s book launched a heavily footnoted argument for a total reassessment of the doctrine known as the Second Coming of Christ.  The conclusion was that the events of the war of the Jewish nation against their Roman overlords in 66-70 C.E. formed the New Testament authors’ eschatological outlook, and went no further than their own first century generation; a view otherwise known as “full” or "hyper" Preterism.  Internationally recognized Evangelical author and speaker, Steve Wohlberg remarked, ‘On the “preterist” side today…we have such influential leaders as Gary DeMar, Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr., David Chilton, R.C. Sproul, Max King, James Stuart Russell, Samuel M. Frost, and John Noe.  To these scholars…the beast is not on the horizon, he’s dead” (Italics, his)” (End Time Delusions, Destiny Image Publishers, 2004, page 133).  It should be noted that only Noe, King and Frost supported the “full” Preterist position. Thomas Ice and co-author of the best selling Left Behind series, Tim LaHaye, quote Frost’s work, Misplaced Hope, as well in their book, The End Times Controversy: The Second Coming under Attack (Harvest House Publishers, 2003, page 40).  Dr. Jay E. Adams, who single handedly launched “a revolution” in Christian Counseling with his work, Competent to Counsel: An Introduction to Nouthetic Counseling, (1970, Zondervan), also wrote an analysis of Frost’s work in Preterism: Orthodox or Unorthodox? (Ministry Monographs for Modern Times, INS Publishing, 2004).  Adams wrote of Misplaced Hope as a "useful, scholarly work" (p.6 - though he disagreed with the overall thesis).  Dr. Charles E. Hill, Professor of New Testament and Early Christianity at Reformed Theological Seminary, Orlando, wrote of Misplaced Hope that Frost, “attacks the problem of the early church in a much more thoroughgoing way than I have seen” (When Shall These Things Be? A Reformed Response to Hyper Preterism, Ed. Keith Mathison, Presbyterian & Reformed Publishing, 2003, ‘Eschatology in the Wake of Jerusalem’s Fall’ p. 110-ff.).  There were several other works as well that took the scholarship of Frost seriously, like Ergun Caner in The Return of Christ: A Premillennial Perspective, Eds., Steve W. Lemke and David L. Allen (B&H Publishing, 2011). Because of the controversial nature of Frost’s conclusions on these matters, it was difficult to find a denomination within the Church-at-Large to work in terms of pastoral ministry.  That situation changed when Samuel was called by a Bible study group in Saint Petersburg, Florida to found a congregation.  Christ Covenant Church was established in 2002 operating under the principles outlined by Presbyterian historian James Bannerman’s work, The Church of Christ: A Treatise on the Nature, Powers, Ordinances, Discipline, and Government of the Christian Church (Banner of Truth Trust, 1974, original, 1869).  By-Laws and a Constitution were drawn up in the strictest manner for what was considered an “Independent” establishment of a Presbyterian Church, granted that a “call” was received and recognized by Presiding Elders duly ordained from existing and recognized denominations.  Two Elders, one ordained in the Reformed Presbyterian Church (Mike Delores), and another ordained in the Presbyterian Church of America (Dr. Kelly N. Birks, now deceased) tested and reviewed the call, ordaining Samuel on October 20th, 2002, the Twenty Second Sunday after Trinity.  Proper forms were submitted to Tallahassee, Florida with the stamp of a Notary Public Witness.  Christ Covenant Church (CCC) functioned as a local church for five years with a congregation as large as 30 members.  Frost was gaining recognition after Misplaced Hope had been published in January of that year, and conferences were hosted that included debates with another prominent "full" Preterist educator, Don K. Preston.  CCC hosted best-selling authors, Thomas Ice, and Mark Hitchcock from Dallas Theological Seminary; and Dr. James B. Jordan (Westminster Theological Seminary), well-known author/pastor in Reformed theological circles.  Frost was invited for the next several years to speak at over 25 conferences nation-wide, was featured in articles and an appearance on local news in Tampa for one of CCC’s conferences.  The Evangelical Theological Society also invited Samuel to speak at the Philadelphia conference (Frost is currently a Member of ETS as well as Society of Biblical Literature). During this time Samuel had submitted one more book, Exegetical Essays on the Resurrection of the Dead (TruthVoice, 2008; repr. JaDon Publishing, 2010); and co-wrote, House Divided: A Reformed Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Vision International, 2010).  Frost also wrote several Forewords for up and coming authors who were influenced by his teaching materials, as well as cited many times in books, lectures and academic papers.  However, because of certain aspects of Hermeneutics and Frost’s undaunted commitment to scholarship (with always a strong emphasis on the personal nature of devotional living to Christ), several challenges to the "hyper" Preterist view he espoused finally gave way, largely due to the unwavering commitment to Samuel by the Dean of Whitefield Theological Seminary, Dr. Kenneth G. Talbot, who continually challenged him.  In what shocked the "hyper" Preterist world, Samuel announced after the Summer of 2010 that he was in serious error, and departed the movement as a whole, along with Jason Bradfield, now Assistant Pastor of Christ Presbyterian Church, Lakeland, Florida .  Christ Covenant Church had dissolved after 2007 while Samuel continued as a public speaker and writer, largely due to reasons that would unravel Frost’s commitment to "hyper" Preterism as a whole. The documentation of Frost’s departure was published by American Vision’s Founder, Gary DeMar, with a Foreword by Dr. Kenneth L. Gentry.  Why I Left Full Preterism (AV Publishing, 2012) quickly ran through its first run.  The book was later republished under the arm of Dr. Kenneth L. Gentry and is sold today (GoodBirth Ministries Publishing, 2019; though still available in Kindle form from American Vision).  Dr. Gentry also gave mention to Frost in his book, Have We Missed the Second Coming: A Critique of Hyper Preterism (Victorious Hope Publishing, 2016), noting him as "one of the most prominent" teachers within Full Preterism (135).  Dr. Keith Mathison, Professor of Systematic Theology at Reformation Bible College in Sanford, Florida, endorsed the book as well.  Samuel has gone on to write, Daniel: Unplugged (McGahan Publishing House, 2021); The Parousia of the Son of Man (Lulu Publishing, 2019); God: As Bill Wilson Understood Him, A Theological Analysis of Alcoholics Anonymous (Lulu Publishing, 2017).  He is also active as a certified Chaplain with the Henry County Sheriff’s Department, Indiana, and enrolled with ICAADA (Indiana Counselor’s Association on Alcohol and Drug Abuse), and worked directly under Dr. Dennis Greene, Founder of Christian Counseling and Addictions Services, Inc., for a year.  Frost’s passion is in the education of the local church on various issues and occasionally works with Pastor Alan McCraine with the First Presbyterian Church in Lewisville, Indiana, and Bethel Presbyterian Church, Knightstown, Indiana, where he periodically is called upon to give the sermon. Samuel, with his wife, Kimberly, helped to establish Heaven’s Bread Basket food pantry that donates food items to local families in need once a month – a ministry of the Session of First Presbyterian Church, Lewisville, Indiana. Samuel also works part time at Ace Hardware in New Castle, Indiana for several years.  He has a solid, family reputation in the community, and has performed local marriages and funerals.  He also sits on the Board of the Historical Preservation Committee in New Castle. Recently, he has completed his two year quest for a Th.D from Christian Life School of Theology Global, Georgia.

One thought on “Who is Jesus? Part 1”

  1. Sam, Be sure to note that NOT ALL full preterists take that unorthodox view of Jesus. It is mainly the advocates and adherents of the Collective Body View and the Covenant Creation View which do that. As far as I know, all of the Individual Body View advocates and adherents believe the orthodox view of Jesus that you subscribe to.


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