Liberty of Conscience

By Samuel M. Frost, Th.M.

Recently, the Governor of Indiana, Eric Holcomb, Republican, issued a Mandate that read, “every individual within the State of Indiana shall wear a face covering over the nose and mouth” Ind Ex Ord. What this means is what it says. At first, the Governor issued a criminal penalty for failure to comply; a Class B Misdemeanor. Attorney General Curtis Hill, along with others, pushed back. The Class B was dropped from the Executive Order. Hill’s reasoning, which is spot on: “Scientists tell us that wearing face masks is an effective means of helping prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19,” Hill said. “The wisdom of wearing masks — or of laws requiring such measures — is not the issue here. Rather, the issue is whether we are following the proper and constitutional processes for enacting laws and whether we are respecting the distinct roles of each branch of state government.”

However, the Mandate is issued, and everyone is to comply. The pressure comes from the “Mask Up, Hoosiers!” campaign which can be basically summed up as follows: “wear a mask, or you might be the reason why grandma died.” Fear. Several fears, in fact.

Now, Eric Hill is not going to get into a lengthy debate concerning the usefulness of non-medical people wearing surgical garb, turning them into instant “experts” as to the “proper use” and “fitting” of masks. Several medical journals have written about this. Ole Indiana Joe pulls his mask out of his pocket, having worn it already for about a week (it’s the one that is crammed in to the dashboard drawer and pulled out when needed). Yeah, that’s what Doctors do, too, right? That mask is about as effective as wearing a piece of toilet paper with Scotch tape. But, that’s what I am seeing everyday.

You know, if you have those droplets, you do realize that they collect in that mask. When you take that mask off, wind hits it, not to mention you might have just placed this little .02 micron bugger on your finger, which just touched your nose, or scratched your ear (that’s another hole into your body). Doctors operate in sanitary conditions. Walmart is not a sanitary place when it comes to this stuff. Enter the mask. No, not the homemade ones, the N-95 Mask.

Now, reading article after article, and depending on who you are reading, the “experts” and the “scientists” say that wearing a mask does greatly reduce the risk of spread, provided that the one wearing the mask either, A. has the virus to spread, and B. has symptoms, or just goes into a coughing or sneezing jag. Now we are told that those who do not have symptoms “rarely” transmit the virus if they do have it. But, then we are told that is can be transmitted by the same – they had to adjust their original statement. Earlier in the year, Dr. Fauci himself said that masks were more or less ineffective. Now he says they are. Huh? I get it. As more “evidence” grows, things might “change” in terms of effectively battling the Wuhan Virus (thanks, China). And, in my previous blog, To Mask or Not to Mask, I made note that this is what “science” does: changes. We have witnessed this in the last six months. Facts are flying and “experts” are speaking. All of the sudden, Epidemiologists who no one has ever heard of are now speaking on all the media outlets as super stars.

I am not an Epidemiologist. But, I know how to read. I avoid crackpots. If you don’t have the proper degree and experience in your field, or the peer review and such, chances are I won’t listen to you. But, see, this is the problem: we are hearing conflicting evidence from those who are not crackpots. Now, if you simply spend your time reading only what CNN states, you are only getting one side. If you only watch those who FOX News trots out, you are only getting one side. The Wuhan Virus is not a hoax. It’s real, and it has killed a lot of people (we can discuss the “numbers” later). But, so does TB, AIDS, H1N1, and other spreadable human to human (HtH) viruses. Combined, these killers number quite a lot on a yearly basis. No one issues a Mandate for Condoms, however. Could you imagine that? “I notice you two are on a nice, lovely date tonight. You have your wine, and both of you are looking at each other in the eye with great expectations later on. Now, I need to see if you have a condom on you, please. This won’t take long. State Mandate.”

No. We don’t need a State Mandate. I do not need the Government telling me, ordering me to wear a mask without due reason. And this is the problem: I can provide studies from “experts” that show the ineffectiveness of masks. Is Corona Virus spread by aerosol or droplet (that’s a big debate)? Perhaps both. The effectiveness of masks loses even more power to catch droplets when it is constantly touched, taken off, put back on, etc. It’s not that they are not effective at all, but how effective? Second, what if you are not showing any symptoms? What if you don’t have it? Then there is nothing you are spreading. Of course, there is always the risk that you might have it and may spread it, provided that you weeze on someone standing inches away from them. Are handshakes allowed any more? Why would a handshake be frowned upon? Is this virus that transmissible that a hand shake might be your death? What if I touch an item, say, a box of cereal that Infected Mary just touched after she placed her finger under her mask to scratch her runny nose (while no one was looking)? Best stay inside. OH! Did you read the CDC report on using too much hand sanitizer can cause illness? Did you hear that some New York beaches have these things called, “sharks”?

Now, I am a religious person. My faith in God is my life. I eat, sleep and breath religion. My faith in God means that this God created this world way back in the beginning. It also means that, if I read the Bible correctly, this God is very much, very aware of every single particle, living or not. For example, when Francis Crick announced the “double helix” of dioxybonucleic acid (DNA), the world was introduced to a whole new way of looking at human biology. God wasn’t. He put it there when he made Woman and Man. Been there all along. Now, I don’t mind that someone may not agree with me here on my theological speculations. The Constitution – not that I need that for declaring human rights – grants me (rather, recognizes) that I am free to think such a claim. That no person can coerce me to think otherwise. And, we have “experts” – highly specialized scholars – both atheist and Christian that disagree. Matters not. The Government cannot tell me one way or the other. I am free to think what I want on this matter. Now, true, “science” these days heavily favors that we originated from accidental motion. So? I can equally utilize an arsenal of “scientists” – perhaps fewer in number, but trained in the same institutes of learning and granted the same Ph.D’s – that agree with me. I don’t do crack pots. I try to endeavor in being informed, well read, and over read – equally reading material that counters what I just read.

So, here’s the problem. I do not have symptoms, and I believe in a God that claims to hold the keys of death and the grave, who has appointed me a certain number of days on his earth, and who basically looks out after me, even if that means I get hit by a truck through no fault of my own other than I was driving a car. Sure, I take precautions, when convinced such precautions are absolutely necessary, but that’s my prerogative, not any State Official’s. I love my neighbor, too. But, I am not convinced in my mind, in my conscience, that putting on a weave of fibers around my mouth necessitates the conclusion that I hate my neighbor. The logic is horribly bad (non-sequitor).

For me, then, to comply with such a “mandate” with which I do not at all agree with, and with which I am not at all convinced will save me from certain death otherwise, or that I am going to cause your death if I fail to don a mask, goes against my being. Secondly, I do not agree that such a mandate is necessary, or that such a mandate can be “ordered” for “every individual” from the State. The State can educate, can campaign around “Mask Up!”, can inform, give us statistics and facts, and tell us “what they believe is warranted” to “protect yourself” during this Wuhan Pandemic. And, the citizens, upon informing themselves can act in accordance with their discernment. Businesses could do the same. They would refuse no customer wearing a mask. They would refuse no customer not wearing a mask. They would not encroach upon an employee’s right to pursue their own convinced and reasoned opinion, either, given the fact that there are various opinions out there that have credible arguments. Stalemate. What’s the solution? Liberty of Conscience of the Individual. We exercise this all the time over several matters concerning our lives, and what may, or may not be the possible cause of our deaths. The State is needed to tell me about my health while I pursue my life, peace, and happiness?

The situation in the last six months in this country has caused a profound raising of the issues in several fundamental levels. Constitutional issues. I have my own informed answer (anyone can visit my personal library and we can discuss them). I have a right to that answer, and to live according to that answer. When the State gets in the way of me living out that answer and tells me, “well, you can live that in your own home, but when you are out in public you live it Our Way”, then I have a gigantic, massive, personal violation of my conscience if I comply; effectively saying to the State, “I strongly disagree with you, but I’ll fold, bow and bend over. You hold the strings!” Nah. No thanks. Not for me. I bend enough. What bending I do I can tolerate. I am not bending further…’s starting to effect my health, and the health of millions of others. You can label us every name you want, but still have not proven beyond a shadow of my informed doubts that wearing a mask prevents my death, or the death of anyone else. I am not afraid of this virus. Call me crazy.

“Without a widespread belief,” writes William H. Goetzmann, “in individual natural rights, without an ingrained tradition of religious independence, there could have been no strong feelings about British encroachments on American liberties” (Beyond the Revolution, Perseus Books, 2009, p.32). That is, there would have been no Revolution without these feelings. How authority can dictate to certain issues that are, or should not be equally applied to individuals concerning their own pursuits in life (that is, health) was settled early in American thought. George Mason declared in the Virginia Constitution of 1776 that “religion, or the duty we owe our Creator, and the manner discharging it, can only be directed by reason and conviction, not by force, nor by violence; and therefore all men are equally entitled to the free exercise to religion, according to the dictates of conscience” (taken from The New Nation: A History of the United States During the Confederation 1781-1789, Northwestern University Press, 1950 – 1981 reprint, Merrill Jensen). Jensen notes that the strength in liberty was that many ideas could each be argued in a rational, informed way so that many political opinions and religious differences could not produce universal assent in terms of convincing everyone. What was the solution? Liberty. “Many Americans”, he wrote, noting those who balked at the idea of pure liberty, “then as now have never accepted the idea that people’s minds should be and must be free” (p.134). This meant that many opinions would be – should be in competition with each other, and should be allowed to flourish in spite of their opposition to each other precisely because no State authority has the power to settle them one way or the other. If it is, then, my carefully informed opinion that wearing a mask will not at all benefit me, or benefit others around me if I did not wear one, and since this is based on my ultimate allegiance to God and conscience, and since it cannot be proven to me the effectiveness of me wearing a mask, the State has infringed on my Right. Wearing a mask may benefit you, and I say to you, wear that mask!

But, see, the State has claimed to have settled the matter once and for all: wear a mask and save a life. Period. No debate. No need for consent of the people. You are ordered. Well, I object. Section 201 (a) reads from the Civil Rights Act of 1964: “All persons shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, and accommodations of any place of public accommodation, as defined in this section, without discrimination or segregation on the ground of race, color, religion, or national origin.” My conscience on this matter is informed by my religious views, deeply held, on matters concerning State and personal conduct as it regards my health. Section 202 states, “All persons shall be entitled to be free, at any establishment or place, from discrimination or segregation of any kind on the ground of race, color, religion, or national origin, if such discrimination or segregation is or purports to be required by any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, rule, or order of a State or any agency or political subdivision thereof.”

While I am at it, for those employed, Title VII, defines “Religion” as, “The term “religion” includes all aspects of religious observance and practice, as well as belief, unless an employer demonstrates that he is unable to reasonably accommodate to an employee’s or prospective employee’s religious observance or practice without undue hardship on the conduct of the employer’s business.” This leaves, as it should, the right of business owners to assess their own opinion as to what would constitute an “undue hardship,” in this case not wearing a mask.

Well, there you have it. Feel free to “interpret” it all you like. After all, that’s the country we live in.


Author: Samuel M. Frost, Th.D.

Samuel M. Frost has gained the recognition of his family, peers, colleagues, church members, and local community as a teacher and leader.  Samuel was raised in the Foursquare Gospel tradition and continued in the rising Charismatic Movement of the early 1980’s.  While serving in local congregations he was admitted to Liberty Christian College in Pensacola, Florida where he lived on campus for four years earning his Bachelor’s of Theology degree.  It was there under the tutelage of Dr. Dow Robinson (Summer Institutes of Linguistics), and Dr. Frank Longino (Dallas Theological Seminary) that he was motivated to pursue a career in Theology.  Dr. Robinson wrote two books on Linguistics, Workbook on Phonological Analysis (SIL, 1970) and Manuel for Bilingual Dictionaries: Textbook (SIL, 1969).  It was under these teachers’ guidance that Frost entered into his Master’s studies, being granted a scholarship for Greek I and II at Pentecostal Theological Seminary, accredited, in Cleveland, Tennessee (adjunct of Lee University).  Frost completed his study under Dr. French Arrington (The Ministry of Reconciliation, Baker Books, 1980), who used the text of J. Gresham Machen, New Testament Greek for Beginners. Frost studied Hebrew for two years under Dr. Mark Futato (author, Beginning Biblical Hebrew, Eisenbrauns, 2003) and Dr. Bruce K. Waltke (author, An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax, Eisenbrauns, 1990) at Reformed Theological Seminary, Orlando, Florida. With combined credits from PTS and RTS, Samuel completed his Master of Arts in Christian Studies and Master of Arts in Religion from Whitefield Theological Seminary in Lakeland, Florida under the direct tutelage of Dr. Kenneth G. Talbot, co-author of the well reviewed work, Hyper-Calvinism and Arminianism (Whitefield Media, 2005) with Dr. Gary Crampton (and Foreword by the late, Dr. D. James Kennedy).  Dr. Talbot also oversaw Samuel’s Dissertation, From the First Adam to the Second and Last Adam (2012) earning him the Magister Theologiae (Th.M.) degree.  He also helped put together A Student’s Hebrew Primer for WTS, designed and graded exams for their Hebrew Languages course. Samuel’s studies lead him into an issue in the field of Eschatology where his scholarship and unique approach in Hermeneutics garnered him recognition.  Because of the controversial nature of some of his conclusions, scholars were sharp in their disagreement with him.  Frost’s initial work, Misplaced Hope: The Origins of First and Second Century Eschatology (2002, Second Edition, 2006 Bi-Millennial Publishing), sold over four thousand units.  While arguing for the Reformation understanding of sola Scriptura as defined by the Westminster Confession of Faith, Frost’s book launched a heavily footnoted argument for a total reassessment of the doctrine known as the Second Coming of Christ.  The conclusion was that the events of the war of the Jewish nation against their Roman overlords in 66-70 C.E. formed the New Testament authors’ eschatological outlook, and went no further than their own first century generation; a view otherwise known as “full” or "hyper" Preterism.  Internationally recognized Evangelical author and speaker, Steve Wohlberg remarked, ‘On the “preterist” side today…we have such influential leaders as Gary DeMar, Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr., David Chilton, R.C. Sproul, Max King, James Stuart Russell, Samuel M. Frost, and John Noe.  To these scholars…the beast is not on the horizon, he’s dead” (Italics, his)” (End Time Delusions, Destiny Image Publishers, 2004, page 133).  It should be noted that only Noe, King and Frost supported the “full” Preterist position. Thomas Ice and co-author of the best selling Left Behind series, Tim LaHaye, quote Frost’s work, Misplaced Hope, as well in their book, The End Times Controversy: The Second Coming under Attack (Harvest House Publishers, 2003, page 40).  Dr. Jay E. Adams, who single handedly launched “a revolution” in Christian Counseling with his work, Competent to Counsel: An Introduction to Nouthetic Counseling, (1970, Zondervan), also wrote an analysis of Frost’s work in Preterism: Orthodox or Unorthodox? (Ministry Monographs for Modern Times, INS Publishing, 2004).  Adams wrote of Misplaced Hope as a "useful, scholarly work" (p.6 - though he disagreed with the overall thesis).  Dr. Charles E. Hill, Professor of New Testament and Early Christianity at Reformed Theological Seminary, Orlando, wrote of Misplaced Hope that Frost, “attacks the problem of the early church in a much more thoroughgoing way than I have seen” (When Shall These Things Be? A Reformed Response to Hyper Preterism, Ed. Keith Mathison, Presbyterian & Reformed Publishing, 2003, ‘Eschatology in the Wake of Jerusalem’s Fall’ p. 110-ff.).  There were several other works as well that took the scholarship of Frost seriously, like Ergun Caner in The Return of Christ: A Premillennial Perspective, Eds., Steve W. Lemke and David L. Allen (B&H Publishing, 2011). Because of the controversial nature of Frost’s conclusions on these matters, it was difficult to find a denomination within the Church-at-Large to work in terms of pastoral ministry.  That situation changed when Samuel was called by a Bible study group in Saint Petersburg, Florida to found a congregation.  Christ Covenant Church was established in 2002 operating under the principles outlined by Presbyterian historian James Bannerman’s work, The Church of Christ: A Treatise on the Nature, Powers, Ordinances, Discipline, and Government of the Christian Church (Banner of Truth Trust, 1974, original, 1869).  By-Laws and a Constitution were drawn up in the strictest manner for what was considered an “Independent” establishment of a Presbyterian Church, granted that a “call” was received and recognized by Presiding Elders duly ordained from existing and recognized denominations.  Two Elders, one ordained in the Reformed Presbyterian Church (Mike Delores), and another ordained in the Presbyterian Church of America (Dr. Kelly N. Birks, now deceased) tested and reviewed the call, ordaining Samuel on October 20th, 2002, the Twenty Second Sunday after Trinity.  Proper forms were submitted to Tallahassee, Florida with the stamp of a Notary Public Witness.  Christ Covenant Church (CCC) functioned as a local church for five years with a congregation as large as 30 members.  Frost was gaining recognition after Misplaced Hope had been published in January of that year, and conferences were hosted that included debates with another prominent "full" Preterist educator, Don K. Preston.  CCC hosted best-selling authors, Thomas Ice, and Mark Hitchcock from Dallas Theological Seminary; and Dr. James B. Jordan (Westminster Theological Seminary), well-known author/pastor in Reformed theological circles.  Frost was invited for the next several years to speak at over 25 conferences nation-wide, was featured in articles and an appearance on local news in Tampa for one of CCC’s conferences.  The Evangelical Theological Society also invited Samuel to speak at the Philadelphia conference (Frost is currently a Member of ETS as well as Society of Biblical Literature). During this time Samuel had submitted one more book, Exegetical Essays on the Resurrection of the Dead (TruthVoice, 2008; repr. JaDon Publishing, 2010); and co-wrote, House Divided: A Reformed Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Vision International, 2010).  Frost also wrote several Forewords for up and coming authors who were influenced by his teaching materials, as well as cited many times in books, lectures and academic papers.  However, because of certain aspects of Hermeneutics and Frost’s undaunted commitment to scholarship (with always a strong emphasis on the personal nature of devotional living to Christ), several challenges to the "hyper" Preterist view he espoused finally gave way, largely due to the unwavering commitment to Samuel by the Dean of Whitefield Theological Seminary, Dr. Kenneth G. Talbot, who continually challenged him.  In what shocked the "hyper" Preterist world, Samuel announced after the Summer of 2010 that he was in serious error, and departed the movement as a whole, along with Jason Bradfield, now Assistant Pastor of Christ Presbyterian Church, Lakeland, Florida .  Christ Covenant Church had dissolved after 2007 while Samuel continued as a public speaker and writer, largely due to reasons that would unravel Frost’s commitment to "hyper" Preterism as a whole. The documentation of Frost’s departure was published by American Vision’s Founder, Gary DeMar, with a Foreword by Dr. Kenneth L. Gentry.  Why I Left Full Preterism (AV Publishing, 2012) quickly ran through its first run.  The book was later republished under the arm of Dr. Kenneth L. Gentry and is sold today (GoodBirth Ministries Publishing, 2019; though still available in Kindle form from American Vision).  Dr. Gentry also gave mention to Frost in his book, Have We Missed the Second Coming: A Critique of Hyper Preterism (Victorious Hope Publishing, 2016), noting him as "one of the most prominent" teachers within Full Preterism (135).  Dr. Keith Mathison, Professor of Systematic Theology at Reformation Bible College in Sanford, Florida, endorsed the book as well.  Samuel has gone on to write, Daniel: Unplugged (McGahan Publishing House, 2021); The Parousia of the Son of Man (Lulu Publishing, 2019); God: As Bill Wilson Understood Him, A Theological Analysis of Alcoholics Anonymous (Lulu Publishing, 2017).  He is also active as a certified Chaplain with the Henry County Sheriff’s Department, Indiana, and enrolled with ICAADA (Indiana Counselor’s Association on Alcohol and Drug Abuse), and worked directly under Dr. Dennis Greene, Founder of Christian Counseling and Addictions Services, Inc., for a year.  Frost’s passion is in the education of the local church on various issues and occasionally works with Pastor Alan McCraine with the First Presbyterian Church in Lewisville, Indiana, and Bethel Presbyterian Church, Knightstown, Indiana, where he periodically is called upon to give the sermon. Samuel, with his wife, Kimberly, helped to establish Heaven’s Bread Basket food pantry that donates food items to local families in need once a month – a ministry of the Session of First Presbyterian Church, Lewisville, Indiana. Samuel also works part time at Ace Hardware in New Castle, Indiana for several years.  He has a solid, family reputation in the community, and has performed local marriages and funerals.  He also sits on the Board of the Historical Preservation Committee in New Castle. Recently, he has completed his two year quest for a Th.D from Christian Life School of Theology Global, Georgia.

One thought on “Liberty of Conscience”

  1. Yep, on target. I agree.
    Thanks, Sam, for getting the word out. Problem is, many will always “Pooh Pooh” and just trust the government anyway…sheep being led astray!


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