The Altar in Revelation

By Samuel M. Frost, Th. M.

It is quite common to find NT commentary on the “Altar” in Revelation (Rv) 8.3 as being representative of the Brazen or Brass Altar in the Courtyard of the Temple/Tabernacle. This altar stood on the outside of the Temple/Tabernacle complex seen in figure 1. However, there was another “Altar” inside the Tabernacle of Moses and the Temple of Solomon (as well as the Herodian Temple in Jesus’ day). This was the Altar of Incense which was in the Holy Place just outside of the veil into the Most Holy Place (figure 2). Thus, in Rv 8.3 we find this altar with the “incense” and “coals” as such. I propose that this is the same altar that we see in Rv 6.9.

Figure 2
Figure 1

As we can see in these pictures, there are two Altars, one inside, and the other outside. In Rv 6.9 John saw the “souls” of those who “have been killed” (Perfect Tense) praying to God to avenge their blood. John “saw” this image while he was still standing “in heaven” (4.1), where the whole scene unfolds. It is interesting that a “seal” has to be “broken” open in order for John to see these “fellowservants” and “brothers” (6.10), of which John himself was, too (1.9, “I am your fellowsharer and brother”). John was on the “isle of Patmos” because of the “witness of God” (1.9), which is also what these saints maintained (6.9). Thus, there is no doubt that these are human beings, here as souls, and that they are “dead”, yet alive to God in heaven. A soul in heaven means a dead body on earth.

Second, it is not at all mentioned how many of these souls there were. They “had been killed” is in the Perfect tense, meaning that they had died while maintaining “the word of God and the witness they bore” (6.9). That’s it. There is no mention of “martyrdom” here, although that cannot be excluded as counted among those that died. This is not a picture of those limited to martyrdom. They are told “rest” (anapauo). This is an indirect discourse, “they were told so that they will rest…” This verb is a Future Middle Indicative, which is common in indirect syntax, and does not carry with it “time” so much as “action” related to the main verb. They were “told” by someone (we are not told who; one of the four creatures, perhaps) so that they might continue resting. At the tearing of the fifth seal, John “saw” the “altar” and the “souls” and when that fifth seal was torn, “they began crying out”, “How long….?” The rhetorgraphical image here is that the souls were already there in heaven as was the altar. When the fifth seal was broken, they responded with crying out to God. Someone tells them to rest. “How long until you judge and avenge our blood on the earth dwellers?”. As they were seeing the seals being torn and the four horses of chaos being sent to render all sorts of disasters on earth, the fifth is opened (only two more left), and they begin to cry out, “how much longer?” “Settle down. Until the full number of those who must be killed as you are is reached” (6.11). Being killed by death (6.8, “killed in death”) demands vengeance. “To each one of them a white robe was given” – which in the Aorist form does not mean that they were then given white robes (suggesting that prior to John seeing them they did not have white robes). The Aorist being what it is can denote a prior action and is, thus, describing a previous action. The sentence would look like this: ‘They cried out with a loud voice, “O Sovereign Lord, holy and true, how long before you will judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth?”‘ (now to each one it was given to them a white stole) And he said to them….’ This follows the pattern of the ‘and I heard…saying, “Come!”‘. What’s interesting, though, is that this pattern breaks with the fifth seal. He sees the souls saying (Present), and reverts to the Aorist of the same verb, “it was told to them”. I pay attention to these little grammatical things.

I didn’t meant to get off on a bit of an interpretative tangent here, but these “souls” who had been “killed” (either by death, by evil people, whatever) are there “under” the altar. Typical styling of John’s writing down of these visions is that something is mentioned in word, then a vision or two later is blown up into a fuller meaning. This style has been long noticed and so there is no need to go into that here. For example, “the great city” is mentioned in 11 for the first time. Later, it is given a larger visionary definition in chapter 17. The Comer up out of the Abyss beast is seen in 11. Then we get a larger image in 13, 17. “Tree of Life” is mentioned in 2, and seen at a greater view in 22. Several more examples like this can be shown.

Thus, with this, 6.9 is the first time we “see” or “hear” about “the altar” (with the article, “the”). We do not encounter it again until 8.3 (2x) and 8.5. “And another angel came and stood at the altar with a golden censer, and he was given much incense to offer with the prayers of all the saints on the golden altar before the throne, and the smoke of the incense, with the prayers of the saints, rose before God from the hand of the angel. Then the angel took the censer and filled it with fire from the altar and threw it on the earth, and there were peals of thunder, rumblings, flashes of lightning, and an earthquake.” Here we are given a much greater description of the altar. It’s gold. It contains coals and incense and represents “prayers of the saints” (which is what 6.9 pictures the saints-as-souls doing). Thus, it is clear here that “the altar” is “in heaven” since the coals are “hurled down” to the earth (the dwellers on the earth).

We find this same image in Isaiah 6 where Isaiah is standing in the temple (6.1) and before the throne is “the altar” (with the article). “Coals” are taken from it with a “tong”, which is what the golden “censors” were filled with. This is the incense altar, made of gold.

In the vision of Ezekiel we find him in the temple seeing “the altar” which is called, “the table of the Lord” (Ezekiel 41.22). It stands before the Lord. The “altar” is a “table”.

In Exodus 30.1-ff we are told of the construction of “the altar of incense” which is “gold” and has “golden bowls” and “four horns” on the corners. It stood directly “in front of” the curtain veil to the Most Holy Place (there is no curtain in John’s visions of the temple in heaven). In Ex 39.38 it is called “the golden altar.”

So, what do we find in Revelation? Well, “the altar” first appears in 6.9. It appears again in 8.3-5 and is the altar of incense (prayers) and coals. It is called, “the golden altar”. In 9.13 it is “the golden altar which is before the eyes of God” that has “four horns”. John is told to measure the heavenly temple and the altar and “count the worshippers in it” (11.1). “It” is the “temple.” The altar is in the temple. The worshippers are in the temple. The temple is in heaven, the temple of God. In 14.17 an angel comes out of the temple of God in heaven, and in verse 18 another angel comes out of “the altar”.

And here’s the final proof. In 16.6, the last time we see “the altar” mentioned, we read this: “And I heard the angel in charge of the waters say, “Just are you, O Holy One, who is and who was, for you brought these judgments. For they have shed the blood of saints and prophets, and you have given them blood to drink. It is what they deserve! And I heard the altar saying, “Yes, Lord God the Almighty, true and just are your judgments!” Now, why is “the altar” saying this? Because, as we have seen, the saints-as-souls in heaven were “crying out, saying, “How long until you judge the blood of us?” In the end, their pleas do not go unanswered. The altar is the saints, the golden altar, in heaven, before God – they are souls (souls in heaven, bodies dead on earth). Their death is a “pleasing aroma” of incense offered to the Lord.

Thus, the altar in Rv 6 pictures souls in heaven – already present in heaven – before the tearing of the 6th and 7th Seal. They are “resting” in heaven (“the rest of God” and “entering into rest” in Hebrews is entering into heavenly rest awaiting “with all the saints” resurrection of the dead). This is the “army of God” who by their very lives and prayers direct the vengeance of God and the Lamb on “the earth dwellers”. They rule with him in heaven (Rv 20.5). These are the ones who “God will bring with him those who have fallen asleep” from heaven when Jesus “descends” from heaven and raises “the dead” in Christ “First” (the First are those “asleep in Christ”, the “dead in Christ” yet “souls-in-heaven” alive to God). These are of the “First Resurrection” – the First to be raised, the souls in heaven. Obviously. If the “living” on earth are not dead, and God “brings with him” those saints who have died, then since they are already “with him” (“with the Lord”) in his building made without hands (his heavenly dwelling, eternal, in the heavens – 2 Co 5.1-ff), in his Temple above, they are the “first” to be raised: they are the “dead” who “have part in the First Resurrection” and are “blessed” on that account (Rv 14.13). Paul’s language follows John’s visions to a tee. The First Resurrection is the resurrection of “the dead in Christ”. The “living” in Christ who have not died will be instantly transformed when the dead in Christ are raised first. Why does Paul make such a deal about them being “first”? Quite simple: they have already gone on and are with the Lord in heaven! To comfort believers still living, Paul marks out those who “sleep in the Lord” (their bodies are asleep in the dust of the earth) with a special honor to those grieving: they are with the Lord. Your dead loved one will be counted as with the First to be raised! What an honor!

Anyhow, the imagery of John here is plain to see.


Author: Samuel M. Frost, Th.D.

Samuel M. Frost has gained the recognition of his family, peers, colleagues, church members, and local community as a teacher and leader.  Samuel was raised in the Foursquare Gospel tradition and continued in the rising Charismatic Movement of the early 1980’s.  While serving in local congregations he was admitted to Liberty Christian College in Pensacola, Florida where he lived on campus for four years earning his Bachelor’s of Theology degree.  It was there under the tutelage of Dr. Dow Robinson (Summer Institutes of Linguistics), and Dr. Frank Longino (Dallas Theological Seminary) that he was motivated to pursue a career in Theology.  Dr. Robinson wrote two books on Linguistics, Workbook on Phonological Analysis (SIL, 1970) and Manuel for Bilingual Dictionaries: Textbook (SIL, 1969).  It was under these teachers’ guidance that Frost entered into his Master’s studies, being granted a scholarship for Greek I and II at Pentecostal Theological Seminary, accredited, in Cleveland, Tennessee (adjunct of Lee University).  Frost completed his study under Dr. French Arrington (The Ministry of Reconciliation, Baker Books, 1980), who used the text of J. Gresham Machen, New Testament Greek for Beginners. Frost studied Hebrew for two years under Dr. Mark Futato (author, Beginning Biblical Hebrew, Eisenbrauns, 2003) and Dr. Bruce K. Waltke (author, An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax, Eisenbrauns, 1990) at Reformed Theological Seminary, Orlando, Florida. With combined credits from PTS and RTS, Samuel completed his Master of Arts in Christian Studies and Master of Arts in Religion from Whitefield Theological Seminary in Lakeland, Florida under the direct tutelage of Dr. Kenneth G. Talbot, co-author of the well reviewed work, Hyper-Calvinism and Arminianism (Whitefield Media, 2005) with Dr. Gary Crampton (and Foreword by the late, Dr. D. James Kennedy).  Dr. Talbot also oversaw Samuel’s Dissertation, From the First Adam to the Second and Last Adam (2012) earning him the Magister Theologiae (Th.M.) degree.  He also helped put together A Student’s Hebrew Primer for WTS, designed and graded exams for their Hebrew Languages course. Samuel’s studies lead him into an issue in the field of Eschatology where his scholarship and unique approach in Hermeneutics garnered him recognition.  Because of the controversial nature of some of his conclusions, scholars were sharp in their disagreement with him.  Frost’s initial work, Misplaced Hope: The Origins of First and Second Century Eschatology (2002, Second Edition, 2006 Bi-Millennial Publishing), sold over four thousand units.  While arguing for the Reformation understanding of sola Scriptura as defined by the Westminster Confession of Faith, Frost’s book launched a heavily footnoted argument for a total reassessment of the doctrine known as the Second Coming of Christ.  The conclusion was that the events of the war of the Jewish nation against their Roman overlords in 66-70 C.E. formed the New Testament authors’ eschatological outlook, and went no further than their own first century generation; a view otherwise known as “full” or "hyper" Preterism.  Internationally recognized Evangelical author and speaker, Steve Wohlberg remarked, ‘On the “preterist” side today…we have such influential leaders as Gary DeMar, Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr., David Chilton, R.C. Sproul, Max King, James Stuart Russell, Samuel M. Frost, and John Noe.  To these scholars…the beast is not on the horizon, he’s dead” (Italics, his)” (End Time Delusions, Destiny Image Publishers, 2004, page 133).  It should be noted that only Noe, King and Frost supported the “full” Preterist position. Thomas Ice and co-author of the best selling Left Behind series, Tim LaHaye, quote Frost’s work, Misplaced Hope, as well in their book, The End Times Controversy: The Second Coming under Attack (Harvest House Publishers, 2003, page 40).  Dr. Jay E. Adams, who single handedly launched “a revolution” in Christian Counseling with his work, Competent to Counsel: An Introduction to Nouthetic Counseling, (1970, Zondervan), also wrote an analysis of Frost’s work in Preterism: Orthodox or Unorthodox? (Ministry Monographs for Modern Times, INS Publishing, 2004).  Adams wrote of Misplaced Hope as a "useful, scholarly work" (p.6 - though he disagreed with the overall thesis).  Dr. Charles E. Hill, Professor of New Testament and Early Christianity at Reformed Theological Seminary, Orlando, wrote of Misplaced Hope that Frost, “attacks the problem of the early church in a much more thoroughgoing way than I have seen” (When Shall These Things Be? A Reformed Response to Hyper Preterism, Ed. Keith Mathison, Presbyterian & Reformed Publishing, 2003, ‘Eschatology in the Wake of Jerusalem’s Fall’ p. 110-ff.).  There were several other works as well that took the scholarship of Frost seriously, like Ergun Caner in The Return of Christ: A Premillennial Perspective, Eds., Steve W. Lemke and David L. Allen (B&H Publishing, 2011). Because of the controversial nature of Frost’s conclusions on these matters, it was difficult to find a denomination within the Church-at-Large to work in terms of pastoral ministry.  That situation changed when Samuel was called by a Bible study group in Saint Petersburg, Florida to found a congregation.  Christ Covenant Church was established in 2002 operating under the principles outlined by Presbyterian historian James Bannerman’s work, The Church of Christ: A Treatise on the Nature, Powers, Ordinances, Discipline, and Government of the Christian Church (Banner of Truth Trust, 1974, original, 1869).  By-Laws and a Constitution were drawn up in the strictest manner for what was considered an “Independent” establishment of a Presbyterian Church, granted that a “call” was received and recognized by Presiding Elders duly ordained from existing and recognized denominations.  Two Elders, one ordained in the Reformed Presbyterian Church (Mike Delores), and another ordained in the Presbyterian Church of America (Dr. Kelly N. Birks, now deceased) tested and reviewed the call, ordaining Samuel on October 20th, 2002, the Twenty Second Sunday after Trinity.  Proper forms were submitted to Tallahassee, Florida with the stamp of a Notary Public Witness.  Christ Covenant Church (CCC) functioned as a local church for five years with a congregation as large as 30 members.  Frost was gaining recognition after Misplaced Hope had been published in January of that year, and conferences were hosted that included debates with another prominent "full" Preterist educator, Don K. Preston.  CCC hosted best-selling authors, Thomas Ice, and Mark Hitchcock from Dallas Theological Seminary; and Dr. James B. Jordan (Westminster Theological Seminary), well-known author/pastor in Reformed theological circles.  Frost was invited for the next several years to speak at over 25 conferences nation-wide, was featured in articles and an appearance on local news in Tampa for one of CCC’s conferences.  The Evangelical Theological Society also invited Samuel to speak at the Philadelphia conference (Frost is currently a Member of ETS as well as Society of Biblical Literature). During this time Samuel had submitted one more book, Exegetical Essays on the Resurrection of the Dead (TruthVoice, 2008; repr. JaDon Publishing, 2010); and co-wrote, House Divided: A Reformed Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Vision International, 2010).  Frost also wrote several Forewords for up and coming authors who were influenced by his teaching materials, as well as cited many times in books, lectures and academic papers.  However, because of certain aspects of Hermeneutics and Frost’s undaunted commitment to scholarship (with always a strong emphasis on the personal nature of devotional living to Christ), several challenges to the "hyper" Preterist view he espoused finally gave way, largely due to the unwavering commitment to Samuel by the Dean of Whitefield Theological Seminary, Dr. Kenneth G. Talbot, who continually challenged him.  In what shocked the "hyper" Preterist world, Samuel announced after the Summer of 2010 that he was in serious error, and departed the movement as a whole, along with Jason Bradfield, now Assistant Pastor of Christ Presbyterian Church, Lakeland, Florida .  Christ Covenant Church had dissolved after 2007 while Samuel continued as a public speaker and writer, largely due to reasons that would unravel Frost’s commitment to "hyper" Preterism as a whole. The documentation of Frost’s departure was published by American Vision’s Founder, Gary DeMar, with a Foreword by Dr. Kenneth L. Gentry.  Why I Left Full Preterism (AV Publishing, 2012) quickly ran through its first run.  The book was later republished under the arm of Dr. Kenneth L. Gentry and is sold today (GoodBirth Ministries Publishing, 2019; though still available in Kindle form from American Vision).  Dr. Gentry also gave mention to Frost in his book, Have We Missed the Second Coming: A Critique of Hyper Preterism (Victorious Hope Publishing, 2016), noting him as "one of the most prominent" teachers within Full Preterism (135).  Dr. Keith Mathison, Professor of Systematic Theology at Reformation Bible College in Sanford, Florida, endorsed the book as well.  Samuel has gone on to write, Daniel: Unplugged (McGahan Publishing House, 2021); The Parousia of the Son of Man (Lulu Publishing, 2019); God: As Bill Wilson Understood Him, A Theological Analysis of Alcoholics Anonymous (Lulu Publishing, 2017).  He is also active as a certified Chaplain with the Henry County Sheriff’s Department, Indiana, and enrolled with ICAADA (Indiana Counselor’s Association on Alcohol and Drug Abuse), and worked directly under Dr. Dennis Greene, Founder of Christian Counseling and Addictions Services, Inc., for a year.  Frost’s passion is in the education of the local church on various issues and occasionally works with Pastor Alan McCraine with the First Presbyterian Church in Lewisville, Indiana, and Bethel Presbyterian Church, Knightstown, Indiana, where he periodically is called upon to give the sermon. Samuel, with his wife, Kimberly, helped to establish Heaven’s Bread Basket food pantry that donates food items to local families in need once a month – a ministry of the Session of First Presbyterian Church, Lewisville, Indiana. Samuel also works part time at Ace Hardware in New Castle, Indiana for several years.  He has a solid, family reputation in the community, and has performed local marriages and funerals.  He also sits on the Board of the Historical Preservation Committee in New Castle. Recently, he has completed his two year quest for a Th.D from Christian Life School of Theology Global, Georgia.

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