Critical Race Theory Introductions

By Samuel M. Frost, Th.M.

People all over the nation are clamoring to find material on Critical Race Theory. It is a fascinating thing to watch what will be recorded in future history books about our own era, provided we are still here. We read of the Scopes Trial, or the Eugenics Movement in the past. We can only read about the reaction of the populace since most of us were not alive. Sweeping reforms, Temperance, Union riots. What will the Media outlets say in hundred years? Critical Race Theory grips the Nation; Teachers Union under Fire for Endorsement of CRT; Another Protest at Local School Turned Riot.

There are a few sources I have read that can help. I want to present somewhat a balance in terms of the response of those who claim to ‘believe in the Bible.’ The first is from my dear brother and good friend, Jason L. Bradfield. Jason is an Assistant Pastor with his M.A. in Theological Studies. He penned, ‘Basic Tenets in Critical Race Theory’ (April, 2021) which highlights the current academic-sourced well. Brad Mason has also penned a different take, offering a more nuanced approach with his article, ‘What is Critical Race Theory? An Introduction to the Movement and its Ideas‘ (February, 2021). Still further, thanks Pastor Kameron Gray for the notice, a new website, The Chalkboard Review, which offers a Critical Race Theory Toolkit.

Of course, I am still stuck back in my library reading Karl Mannheim (Ideology and Utopia), J. Derrida (Specter of Marx), H. Marcuse (One-Dimensional Man, who mentions Derrick Bell, a name you see associated with CRT often, concerning industry and labor), or Raymond Geuss (Ideology of a Critical Theory: Habermas & the Frankfurt School, who also mentions Bell. Geuss corrects a bit Bell’s use of Mannheim’s work, mentioned above).

If someone dives further into the roots and sources pre-Derrick Bell, Kimberlé Crenshaw, or Richard Delgado (three current espousers of CRT), it will be readily noticed that there is no “one theory fits all” here. Critical Theory itself is a methodology that has been around since the late nineteenth century (in seed form, anyway). One can find such applications in Chester M. Pierce, Psychiatric Problems of the Black Minority (1974. Basic Books. From American Handbook of Psychiatry: Volume 2 edited by Silvano Arieti, Gerald Caplan). Pierce coined the phrase, “micro-aggression” (see, Floyd B. Barbour, The Black Seventies, ‘Offensive Mechanisms’. 1970. Boston. P. Sargent).

These are a few ‘sources’ to start with. Is there alarmist hypo-scare mongering? Yeah. Is there “let’s water this down, CRT isn’t so bad” soft peddling? Yeah. Is there, “well, let me read for myself, take the time, use caution, and turn off the television news” approaches? Yeah. That’s the one I recommend. I would add to that, followers of Jesus Christ, the Nazarene born as a Jew, who now resides in the heavenly cosmos ruling over me, you, Derrick Bell, Joel McDurmon, Thomas Sowell, and Mark Levine is the Truth embodied. Nothing escapes him. Nothing. He searches the minds and hearts, leaving not a single word or thought unnoticed. He is not white, black, red, brown, or yellow. He is immortal, body and soul, forever glorified. He is summing up the ages to himself, and summoning human beings “from every tribe, language, nation, and people” to his coming inheritance, where there will be, on this earth, zero racism, zero injustice, zero oppression, and zero evil. Theorize, debate, study, research, plan committees, petition your Officials, protest your county boards. Do what you think is best. But, whatever you do, if you follow the Lamb of God, be guarded against doing it upon his Name and Cause when it may turn out that your “cause” is not His.


Author: Samuel M. Frost, Th.D.

Samuel M. Frost has gained the recognition of his family, peers, colleagues, church members, and local community as a teacher and leader.  Samuel was raised in the Foursquare Gospel tradition and continued in the rising Charismatic Movement of the early 1980’s.  While serving in local congregations he was admitted to Liberty Christian College in Pensacola, Florida where he lived on campus for four years earning his Bachelor’s of Theology degree.  It was there under the tutelage of Dr. Dow Robinson (Summer Institutes of Linguistics), and Dr. Frank Longino (Dallas Theological Seminary) that he was motivated to pursue a career in Theology.  Dr. Robinson wrote two books on Linguistics, Workbook on Phonological Analysis (SIL, 1970) and Manuel for Bilingual Dictionaries: Textbook (SIL, 1969).  It was under these teachers’ guidance that Frost entered into his Master’s studies, being granted a scholarship for Greek I and II at Pentecostal Theological Seminary, accredited, in Cleveland, Tennessee (adjunct of Lee University).  Frost completed his study under Dr. French Arrington (The Ministry of Reconciliation, Baker Books, 1980), who used the text of J. Gresham Machen, New Testament Greek for Beginners. Frost studied Hebrew for two years under Dr. Mark Futato (author, Beginning Biblical Hebrew, Eisenbrauns, 2003) and Dr. Bruce K. Waltke (author, An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax, Eisenbrauns, 1990) at Reformed Theological Seminary, Orlando, Florida. With combined credits from PTS and RTS, Samuel completed his Master of Arts in Christian Studies and Master of Arts in Religion from Whitefield Theological Seminary in Lakeland, Florida under the direct tutelage of Dr. Kenneth G. Talbot, co-author of the well reviewed work, Hyper-Calvinism and Arminianism (Whitefield Media, 2005) with Dr. Gary Crampton (and Foreword by the late, Dr. D. James Kennedy).  Dr. Talbot also oversaw Samuel’s Dissertation, From the First Adam to the Second and Last Adam (2012) earning him the Magister Theologiae (Th.M.) degree.  He also helped put together A Student’s Hebrew Primer for WTS, designed and graded exams for their Hebrew Languages course. Samuel’s studies lead him into an issue in the field of Eschatology where his scholarship and unique approach in Hermeneutics garnered him recognition.  Because of the controversial nature of some of his conclusions, scholars were sharp in their disagreement with him.  Frost’s initial work, Misplaced Hope: The Origins of First and Second Century Eschatology (2002, Second Edition, 2006 Bi-Millennial Publishing), sold over four thousand units.  While arguing for the Reformation understanding of sola Scriptura as defined by the Westminster Confession of Faith, Frost’s book launched a heavily footnoted argument for a total reassessment of the doctrine known as the Second Coming of Christ.  The conclusion was that the events of the war of the Jewish nation against their Roman overlords in 66-70 C.E. formed the New Testament authors’ eschatological outlook, and went no further than their own first century generation; a view otherwise known as “full” or "hyper" Preterism.  Internationally recognized Evangelical author and speaker, Steve Wohlberg remarked, ‘On the “preterist” side today…we have such influential leaders as Gary DeMar, Kenneth L. Gentry, Jr., David Chilton, R.C. Sproul, Max King, James Stuart Russell, Samuel M. Frost, and John Noe.  To these scholars…the beast is not on the horizon, he’s dead” (Italics, his)” (End Time Delusions, Destiny Image Publishers, 2004, page 133).  It should be noted that only Noe, King and Frost supported the “full” Preterist position. Thomas Ice and co-author of the best selling Left Behind series, Tim LaHaye, quote Frost’s work, Misplaced Hope, as well in their book, The End Times Controversy: The Second Coming under Attack (Harvest House Publishers, 2003, page 40).  Dr. Jay E. Adams, who single handedly launched “a revolution” in Christian Counseling with his work, Competent to Counsel: An Introduction to Nouthetic Counseling, (1970, Zondervan), also wrote an analysis of Frost’s work in Preterism: Orthodox or Unorthodox? (Ministry Monographs for Modern Times, INS Publishing, 2004).  Adams wrote of Misplaced Hope as a "useful, scholarly work" (p.6 - though he disagreed with the overall thesis).  Dr. Charles E. Hill, Professor of New Testament and Early Christianity at Reformed Theological Seminary, Orlando, wrote of Misplaced Hope that Frost, “attacks the problem of the early church in a much more thoroughgoing way than I have seen” (When Shall These Things Be? A Reformed Response to Hyper Preterism, Ed. Keith Mathison, Presbyterian & Reformed Publishing, 2003, ‘Eschatology in the Wake of Jerusalem’s Fall’ p. 110-ff.).  There were several other works as well that took the scholarship of Frost seriously, like Ergun Caner in The Return of Christ: A Premillennial Perspective, Eds., Steve W. Lemke and David L. Allen (B&H Publishing, 2011). Because of the controversial nature of Frost’s conclusions on these matters, it was difficult to find a denomination within the Church-at-Large to work in terms of pastoral ministry.  That situation changed when Samuel was called by a Bible study group in Saint Petersburg, Florida to found a congregation.  Christ Covenant Church was established in 2002 operating under the principles outlined by Presbyterian historian James Bannerman’s work, The Church of Christ: A Treatise on the Nature, Powers, Ordinances, Discipline, and Government of the Christian Church (Banner of Truth Trust, 1974, original, 1869).  By-Laws and a Constitution were drawn up in the strictest manner for what was considered an “Independent” establishment of a Presbyterian Church, granted that a “call” was received and recognized by Presiding Elders duly ordained from existing and recognized denominations.  Two Elders, one ordained in the Reformed Presbyterian Church (Mike Delores), and another ordained in the Presbyterian Church of America (Dr. Kelly N. Birks, now deceased) tested and reviewed the call, ordaining Samuel on October 20th, 2002, the Twenty Second Sunday after Trinity.  Proper forms were submitted to Tallahassee, Florida with the stamp of a Notary Public Witness.  Christ Covenant Church (CCC) functioned as a local church for five years with a congregation as large as 30 members.  Frost was gaining recognition after Misplaced Hope had been published in January of that year, and conferences were hosted that included debates with another prominent "full" Preterist educator, Don K. Preston.  CCC hosted best-selling authors, Thomas Ice, and Mark Hitchcock from Dallas Theological Seminary; and Dr. James B. Jordan (Westminster Theological Seminary), well-known author/pastor in Reformed theological circles.  Frost was invited for the next several years to speak at over 25 conferences nation-wide, was featured in articles and an appearance on local news in Tampa for one of CCC’s conferences.  The Evangelical Theological Society also invited Samuel to speak at the Philadelphia conference (Frost is currently a Member of ETS as well as Society of Biblical Literature). During this time Samuel had submitted one more book, Exegetical Essays on the Resurrection of the Dead (TruthVoice, 2008; repr. JaDon Publishing, 2010); and co-wrote, House Divided: A Reformed Response to When Shall These Things Be? (Vision International, 2010).  Frost also wrote several Forewords for up and coming authors who were influenced by his teaching materials, as well as cited many times in books, lectures and academic papers.  However, because of certain aspects of Hermeneutics and Frost’s undaunted commitment to scholarship (with always a strong emphasis on the personal nature of devotional living to Christ), several challenges to the "hyper" Preterist view he espoused finally gave way, largely due to the unwavering commitment to Samuel by the Dean of Whitefield Theological Seminary, Dr. Kenneth G. Talbot, who continually challenged him.  In what shocked the "hyper" Preterist world, Samuel announced after the Summer of 2010 that he was in serious error, and departed the movement as a whole, along with Jason Bradfield, now Assistant Pastor of Christ Presbyterian Church, Lakeland, Florida .  Christ Covenant Church had dissolved after 2007 while Samuel continued as a public speaker and writer, largely due to reasons that would unravel Frost’s commitment to "hyper" Preterism as a whole. The documentation of Frost’s departure was published by American Vision’s Founder, Gary DeMar, with a Foreword by Dr. Kenneth L. Gentry.  Why I Left Full Preterism (AV Publishing, 2012) quickly ran through its first run.  The book was later republished under the arm of Dr. Kenneth L. Gentry and is sold today (GoodBirth Ministries Publishing, 2019; though still available in Kindle form from American Vision).  Dr. Gentry also gave mention to Frost in his book, Have We Missed the Second Coming: A Critique of Hyper Preterism (Victorious Hope Publishing, 2016), noting him as "one of the most prominent" teachers within Full Preterism (135).  Dr. Keith Mathison, Professor of Systematic Theology at Reformation Bible College in Sanford, Florida, endorsed the book as well.  Samuel has gone on to write, Daniel: Unplugged (McGahan Publishing House, 2021); The Parousia of the Son of Man (Lulu Publishing, 2019); God: As Bill Wilson Understood Him, A Theological Analysis of Alcoholics Anonymous (Lulu Publishing, 2017).  He is also active as a certified Chaplain with the Henry County Sheriff’s Department, Indiana, and enrolled with ICAADA (Indiana Counselor’s Association on Alcohol and Drug Abuse), and worked directly under Dr. Dennis Greene, Founder of Christian Counseling and Addictions Services, Inc., for a year.  Frost’s passion is in the education of the local church on various issues and occasionally works with Pastor Alan McCraine with the First Presbyterian Church in Lewisville, Indiana, and Bethel Presbyterian Church, Knightstown, Indiana, where he periodically is called upon to give the sermon. Samuel, with his wife, Kimberly, helped to establish Heaven’s Bread Basket food pantry that donates food items to local families in need once a month – a ministry of the Session of First Presbyterian Church, Lewisville, Indiana. Samuel also works part time at Ace Hardware in New Castle, Indiana for several years.  He has a solid, family reputation in the community, and has performed local marriages and funerals.  He also sits on the Board of the Historical Preservation Committee in New Castle. Recently, he has completed his two year quest for a Th.D from Christian Life School of Theology Global, Georgia.

2 thoughts on “Critical Race Theory Introductions”

  1. Another great article, Sam. As always, lots of deep scholarship & lots to think about. I wonder if some of these synthetic views of history are really a product of Talmudic jurisprudence. You know, “the sins of the fathers” and all that stuff. As Christians, we must insist that only the truths of Christianity can make men free. No need to take a pessimistic approach–a la Spengler or the more common reflexive finger-pointing. We’ve made a lot of improvements in the arena of race-relations; when even as late as the 1940’s, scientists like R. Ruggles Gates were classifying African Americans as a sub-species (Human Ancestry From A Genetic Point of View, 1948). But we’ve also made improvements in sanitation, medical science, civil engineering, and so on. Every time someone orders room service, turn son the A/C, or enjoys A1 Sauce w/ their steak they are unconsciously affirming that western civilization is, well, not really that bad after all. All cultures need work. What we should know by now is that demonization and stereotyping get us nowhere..

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Brian,

      All good points. If you ever get a chance to pick up a copy, or find one online, try to read James Weldon Johnson, Black Manhattan (1930). It’s an eye-opener.


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